Presentation on theme: "The process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances CHEMICAL REACTIONS."— Presentation transcript:
The process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Word Equations To write a word equation, 1. Write the names of the reactants to the left of the arrow separated by plus signs; 2. Write the names of the products to the right of the arrow, also separated by plus signs. Reactant + Reactant Product + Product
EXAMPLE Methane + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water
Skeleton Equations Write the formulas of the reactants to the left of the yields sign (arrow) and the formulas of the products to the right. A skeleton equation is a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and products. Here is the equation for rusting: Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3
Balancing Chemical Equations To write a balanced chemical equation, 1. Write the skeleton equation 2. Use coefficients to balance the equation so that it obeys the law of conservation of mass. Remember you want the same number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation.
Example 3 -- Try on your own!!! Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in which sodium hydroxide and calcium bromide react to produce solid calcium hydroxide and sodium bromide. (The reaction occurs in water.) NaOH(aq)+CaBr 2 (aq) Ca(OH) 2 (s)+NaBr(aq) 2NaOH(aq)+CaBr 2 (aq) Ca(OH) 2 (s)+2NaBr(aq)
Summary Write a skeleton equation Count atoms Add/adjust coefficients Reduce coefficients to lowest possible ratio Check your work
Chemical Equations from Names Magnesium and Hydrogen Chloride produce Hydrogen and Magnesium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide and Lithium Chloride produce Lithium Hydroxide and Calcium Chloride Decompose Copper (II) oxide into Copper and Oxygen Aluminum and Iron (III) oxide produce iron and aluminum oxide combustion of Butane (C 4 H 10 ) in air to produce carbon dioxide and water
1. Synthesis Reactions (Combination) Two or more reactants produce one product Examples: NH 3 + HCl NH 4 Cl H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Ag + S Ag 2 S Al + Cl 2 AlCl 3
Chemistry with AB A + B Decomposition Reactions
2. Decomposition One reactant produces two or more products Examples Ag 2 O Ag +O 2 PCl 5 PCl 3 +Cl 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 O +O 2 CuO Cu +O 2
Chemistry with AB + C AC + B Single Replacement
3. Single Replacement One element replaces another element Must consult the activity series
3. Single Replacement One element and one compound producing a different element and compound Examples Fe + H 3 (PO 4 ) H 2 + Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 H 2 + CuO Cu + H 2 O Zn + HCl H 2 + ZnCl 2 Cl 2 + KBr Br 2 + KCl
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