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1 Chapter 7 - Networking Fundamentals Computer network: – Two or more computers connected together Each is a Node (other nodes: printers, network devices,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 7 - Networking Fundamentals Computer network: – Two or more computers connected together Each is a Node (other nodes: printers, network devices,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 7 - Networking Fundamentals Computer network: – Two or more computers connected together Each is a Node (other nodes: printers, network devices, such as a router, etc Benefits of a network: – Sharing resources – Transferring files

2 2 Network Architecture Network designs: – Individual PC controlled, local control Peer-to-peer (P2P) – Central control Client/server Peer-to-peer Client/ server

3 3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Use for < 10 computers for home and small office networks Nodes communicate with each other: – Peers Share peripheral devices: – Printers – Scanners

4 4 Client/Server Networks Used for > 10 computers Client computers: – Users Server computers: – Provide resources to clients – Central network control Internet – A large, multiserver, multiclient network.

5 5 PANs, HANs and LANs Personal Area Network (PAN) – Connects devices close to one person (smartphones, tablets, with WiFi or Bluetooth) Home area network (HAN) – Connects digital devices within a home Local area network (LAN) – Nodes are within a small geographic region Schools Small businesses

6 6 WANs and MANs Wide area network (WAN) – LANs connected over long distances A few miles to thousands of miles Uses telecommunications lines Metropolitan area network (MAN) – Provides access within a specific geographic region, such as a city

7 7 Network Components Transmission media Network hardware Network Software

8 8 Transmission Media Overview Provides communications channel between nodes Forms of media (wire): – Twisted pair (copper) telephone Ethernet – Coaxial cable(copper) – Fiber-optic (FIOS) Plastic or glass fibers – Radio wave (wireless) Bandwidth: – Data transfer rate (max) – Throughput (actual speed) Run this slide to see the pictures!

9 Names for Ethernet wire: – UTP – unshielded twisted pair, – “Twisted copper pairs” It has 4 pairs of wires (8 total wires), twisted to reduce interference; RJ-45 connector Compare to telephone wire which has 2 pairs of copper wires; RJ-11 connector Don’t run Ethernet lines longer than 328 ft, don’t bend wire a lot, lie along edges of room. 9 Transmission Media Ethernet wire Factoids

10 10 Older: 100 M bps Current -- for home: “1 Gigabit” = 1 G bps = 1000 M bps Current -- for business: 10 G bps Wired 1G bps ( 1 Gigabit) networks are Transmission Media Ethernet wire speed standards FYI the wire pictured here is NOT even Ethernet wire!!

11 11 Transmission Media Speed of common transmission media

12 12 Network Hardware Network Adapters (1) Network adapter – a component on each node of the network allowing it to connect and communicate with other network nodes. Types: – Wired network adapter (contains Ethernet port!) – Wireless network adapter (no port – its wireless!) – Current standard is that most laptops have wired and wireless network adapters; desktops usually just wired network adapter unless specially ordered

13 13 Adapter or card, interchangeable words; Types: – Internal version called network card = Network interface cards (NIC) – External version called network adapter (one type is USB adapter) – Same terminology used with wireless network card variety Wired network card standard speed now is one Gigabit (1 G bps) Network Hardware Network Adapters (2)

14 14 Pictures of network cards and adapters: – Internal card = Network interface cards (NIC) (A) – External laptop network card; “express card” ( – goes into slot in laptop (B) – External card = network adapter (one type is USB adapter) (C) – Wireless network card(left picture) A B C Network Hardware Network Adapters (3)

15 15 Network Hardware Network Navigation Devices Router: Routes data between 2 networks Switch: Routes data across one network. Traffic cop A router (or wireless router) usually … – Contains the switch and – Maybe the modem too – has wired and wireless capability; comes with 4 ports – In other words, one device contains all necessary capabilities. extender– Amplifies signal across longer wires

16 16 The common (wireless) router Router allows for wired and wireless connections; ports for wired connections

17 17 Networking Software Peer-to-Peer Software: Built into operating systems that support networking – Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7 – Mac OS, Linux Client/Server Software (central services and security) Network operating system (NOS) software – Windows Server 2008 – SUSE Linux Enterprise

18 18 Home network Requirements 1.Network adapter (wireless network adapter) - each node requires one to connect to router. a)Wired nodes connect w/ Ethernet wire; Wireless nodes connect with radio frequencies (RF) 2.Modem (DSL or cable) 3.Wireless router -- or gateway ( a wireless router also has ports for wired computers) 4.Optional device –Wireless Access Point (or extender) – if reception is poor in parts of network 5.Picture next page

19 19 Home network picture

20 20 1.Verify that each node on the network has a network card/adapter 2.Connect coaxial cable to cable modem (or telephone line to DSL modem). Connect PC to modem – Verify that Internet is live on PC. If live, then connect modem and router together. And disconnect PC above and reconnect to router. 3.Connect all other nodes to router (laptops, desktops, networkable printers, etc.) Home network Create the network 1/2

21 21 4.Turn on the following in this order, waiting a few minutes in between: a.Cable/DSL modem b.Router (Then wait a few minutes.) c.All computers other nodes (PCS, printers, etc) 5.Open Control Panel> Network and Sharing. – With wired connection (and Windows 7), you should be connected to home network automatically – With wireless connection, click on Connect to a network option, (and enter security pass phrase if you already secured your router, see 2 slides ahead.) Home network Create the network 2/2

22 IEEE standards IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Set electronic standards and for Ethernet networks 802.3 standard – wired networks 802.11 standard – wireless networks ranked from older to newer standards: – 802.11a, b, g (older) – 802.11n – 802.11ac (newest) – (802.11ad or WiGig. Not for home networks) (newest) When wires/hardware/technologies are paired and have differing standards, the older standard prevails, (backwards compatibility) 22

23 Wireless Networks Wireless router … – Can connect up to 253 wireless – Contains a transceiver (transmits and receives signals) and antenna Wireless – Interference - can come from cinderblock, other building materials, other electronic devices, neighbors’ networks, magnetic or electrical sources, between network equipment. – Compared to wired, wireless has lower throughput as consequence of interference 23

24 24 Wireless Networks SECURE YOUR WIRELESS ROUTER: 1.Change SSID to unique one (and/or turn off broadcasting of it.) 2.Change default username from “admin” to a secure username you desire. And change the password. 3.Enable security protocol (WEP or newer WPA2) 4.Restrict access via MAC filtering (MAC =Media Access Control ) 5.Limit your signal range. 6.(Apply firmware upgrades – technical step)

25 Other (optional) New devices, televisions and related media devices, now come with network adapters to connect to your network Network attached storage (NAS) – drive accessible to network for graphic/video files Home Network Server (“server” in the name yet still used on P2P; for media files) 25

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