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Occupational health and safety

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Presentation on theme: "Occupational health and safety"— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational health and safety

2 Occupational health and safety legislation
Each state/territory has OHS legislation that is usually presented in three parts The Act- this outlines the general requirements Regulations- These set out legal requirements. Regulations are mandatory, meaning that the employer and employee abide by them. Approved codes of practice- These provide information on minimum standards and guidance on how standards can be met. All workplaces must comply with OHS Act 2

3 Occupational health and safety legislation
Duty of Care One of the aims of OHS legislation is for employees and employers to work together to maintain a safe workplace A general duty of care is placed on every one in the workplace. This general duty of care states the particular responsibilities of employers and employees and other people in the work environment Both the employer and employees are responsible for implementing safe workplace practices 3

4 Employer’s responsibility
All employers are required under OHS legislation to ensure the health and safety of their employees. Employers must ensure that health, safety and welfare of their employees when at work by: Maintaining places of work under their control in a safe condition, and ensuring safe entrances and exits Making arrangements for ensuring the safe use, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances The employer must not knowingly endanger employees by not providing a safe workplace and not acting to eliminate or reduce hazards as they arise. For example: A frayed electrical cord A trip hazard created by a movement of crack in paving Lighting that flickers or doesn’t work Poor storage that may create a risk in relation to access, tripping, object falling etc. 4

5 Employer’s responsibility
Providing and maintaining systems of work , and providing environments that are safe and without risk to health Providing information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure the health and safety of employees Providing adequate facilities for the welfare of employees Workplace training, instruction and having in place policies and procedures will help to minimise OHS risks and workplace injury 5

6 Employee’s responsibility
Employees also have a responsibility to act in a safe manner and follow lawful instructions Employees must take reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves and others. Employees must cooperate with employers in their efforts to comply with Occupational health and safety requirements Employees must comply at all times with legal instruction in relation to OHS For example wearing protective clothing such as enclosed shoes, hat, etc. Using protective strategies such as disposable gloves Following written procedures – for example nappy change 6

7 Employee’s responsibility
Employees must not: Interfere with or misuse things provided for the health, safety or welfare of persons at work Obstruct attempts to give aid or attempts to prevent a serious risk to health and safety of a person at work Refuse a reasonable request to assist in giving aid or preventing a risk to health and safety Disrupt a workplace by creating health or safety fears 7

8 Documentation OHS policies and procedures have been written
Hazards are being identified and assessed and control measures have been put in place to eliminate or reduce the risks Training in safe operating procedures is conducted Each service will have in place a range of policies and procedures in relation to OHS. Policies must be easy to read and interpret. Policies may include: manual handling accidental injury work-related illness protective behaviours cross-infection control professional development and supervision stress management conflict resolution protective clothing and footwear sun protection complaints procedure 8

9 Documentation Employers are expected to provide documented evidence that demonstrates: Accidents and incidents are recorded and acted upon Adequate training, first aid supplies and personal protective equipment are provided Consultation mechanisms are in place All records are adequately maintained Examples: Accident report form Near miss report form Record of equipment in need of repair Instruction on evacuation Instruction on using fire extinguishers Instruction on use of office equipment/laundry and kitchen equipment Manual handling & backcare training 9

10 Principles of Risk Management Identify the hazard
Assess the risk of each hazard Control or manage the risk Monitor and improve safety Common Hazards in Children’s Services The following list identifies some of the common OHS hazards in children’s services. cross-infection and infectious diseases buildings and equipment – including how storage is accessed inadequate space for carrying out routine tasks, setting up of activities, or storage of equipment and resources storage, access, and use of poisons/chemicals use of electrical appliances and access to power points by children food preparation and storage environmental factors such as ventilation, shade, noise unexpected emergencies inadequate evacuation plan and inadequate exits inadequate fire equipment and training in use of fire equipment keeping and care of pets inadequate supervision of children developmentally inappropriate activities and programs for children manual lifting of heavy and cumbersome equipment non-compliance with staff:child ratios. 10

11 Identify the hazard Checklists are an effective way to identify hazards When designing a checklist you need to consider : What are the tasks? How are the tasks performed? What are the potential risks? Have injuries occurred when performing this tasks? Have there been any near misses?

12 Sample checklist Can you design a checklist that could be used for:
an outdoor storage area a staff room that is also a lunch room with a sink, kettle & microwave security for staff on late shift who may lock up & leave after dark

13 Assess the risk The level of ‘risk’ involved is assessed by considering: the consequences or possible severity of injury – for example, would it require first aid, a week off work or lead to permanent incapacity? the probability of injury – how likely is it that someone could be injured – for example ‘highly likely’ or ‘not likely’?

14 Probability/Consequence
Has happened or near miss has occurred Conceivable could happen Unlikely to happen Fatality or disabling injury or illness High Medium Hospitalisation Medical treatment by doctor Low First Aid treatment The next step is to conduct a risk assessment to measure the likelihood of someone being injured and how serious the injury could be. The level of ‘risk’ involved is assessed by considering: the consequences or possible severity of injury – for example, would it require first aid, a week off work or lead to permanent incapacity? For example what might be the consequences of not wearing gloves when dealing with body fluids? (at risk serious infection such as Hep. B or HIV the probability of injury – how likely is it that someone could be injured – for example ‘highly likely’ or ‘not likely’? For example what might be the probability of injury/illness if gloves are not worn? (prob. is low –medium ) 14

15 Hierarchy of control Can you eliminate the hazard?
Can you substitute something else for the hazard? Can you isolate the hazard or remove the person from the risk? The most effective control is eliminating the risk and the least effective is providing personal protection. Example Outdoor store rooms in children’s services are usually not well designed for the storage of large bulky items, wooden planks, trikes and sand toys etc. Access is usually poor and there is a high risk of serious injury. Should we have national design standards for outdoor storage space? 15

16 Hierarchy of control Can changing the design of furniture or using equipment reduce or eliminate the risk? Can the work practice be changed or could the person be trained to avoid the risk, e.g. manual handling Provide the person with personal protective equipment (PPE).

17 Control or manage the risk
To control or manage the risk: Put in place policies and procedures Put in place step-by-step instructions Reduce the frequency of the task (eg enter outdoor storage once for setup & once for packing away) Provide training Use signage as a reminder Regularly discuss OHS

18 Controlling the risk: safe work practices
Hand Washing Infection Control Universal Precautions Cleaning and Disinfecting Responding To Illnesses Immunisation A range of practical strategies can be put in place in children’s services to control risks Hand Washing Infection Control Universal Precautions Cleaning and Disinfecting Responding to Illnesses 18

19 Reporting and documentation
OHS legislation requires all workplace injuries and near misses to be properly and accurately recorded. In the event of serious injury a written report is essential to protect the rights of both the employer and the employee. Written reports protect both the employer and the employee and can be used as a tool to improve workplace safety. 19

20 Reporting and documentation
An accident report should include the following details: name of person injured address of person injured age and sex of person injured occupation of person injured date and time injury occurred type of injury sustained body part injured how injury occurred activity being conducted at the time of the injury use of safety equipment at time of injury lost time resulting from the injury treatment administered Details records of accidents/ injuries and how staff responded can also be used as a tool to review OHS procedures 20

21 Reporting and documentation
A near miss report should include the following information: Date and time & location of near miss Who was involved The activity being conducted at the time of the near miss How the near miss occurred What immediate action was taken. Documentation can be used for quality improvement . This is particularly so for records of near misses – if the a near miss regularly reoccurs it is a red flag for action to address the problem 21

22 Remember, workplace safety is everyone’s responsibility
The cycle of risk management is continuous and must be a daily habit for all employees. 22

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