Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking, Ethics, Multiculturalism and Economics St. Cloud Winter Institute 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Critical Thinking, Ethics, Multiculturalism and Economics St. Cloud Winter Institute 2008
Why Critical Thinking? Is not just thinking critical? Everyone thinks –It is our nature to do so But much of our thinking left to itself has problems
Problems with Our Thinking Biased Distorted Partial Uninformed Prejudiced
Yea….Yea This is beginning to sound like a philosophy class in logic. I came here to learn something that I can use in my class and maybe have some fun. HOW DOES THIS RELATE TO ECONOMICS
The quality of our life and the quality of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought.
Where would we today if sloppy thinking was the norm in our past. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life.
Shoddy thinking is costly Whoa! That is describing an OPPORTUNITY COST. Excellence in thought is difficult, but economics is a great class to introduce and practice proper thinking.
Systematically Cultivated Critical thinking is a mode of thinking If you had a Philosophy class on critical thinking you probably addressed the three main areas. –Epistemology (Yikes!) –Logic –Ethics
www.criticalthinking.org Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self- corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.
To Solve a Problem State the question clearly and precisely. Clarify the question as to meaning and scope. Divide the question into appropriate parts. Which parts of the question can be answered with facts and which are a matter of opinion? What questions am I raising? What questions am I addressing? Am I considering the complexities in the question?
To Analyze Thinking Identify the purpose (statement, article, etc) Question information Assumptions Main concepts Point of view Conclusions implications
This is the basic writing assignment! Five Paragraph Essay –Introduction Paragraph 1: Lead and Link Thesis Statement Statement of Provable Parts (usually three, a, b, c) Body –Paragraph 2: Prove or expand Provable Part A –Paragraph 3: Prove or expand Provable Part B –Paragraph 4: Prove or expand Provable Part C Conclusion –Paragraph 5: Conclusion
I can handle this (If I only had more time) and this is nothing like college logic classes. Or is it?
You are teaching economics not logic Even though you are not teaching logic, you can still use the simple terminology. What is the 5—paragraph essay? –An argument!! –An attempt to convince someone (possibly yourself) that a particular claim, called a conclusion, is true That claim we call a conclusion looks like a thesis statement.
The argument is logic Premises are used to prove the conclusion Since we most often examine this topic with the 5—paragraph essay and with news articles, it is worth review indicator words.
Indicator Words for Premises Since…For the reason that… For…In view of… Because…This is implied by… In as much as…Given that… Suppose that…It follows from… It follows from…Due to…
Indicator words for Conclusions Thus…Therefore… This shows that…So… Accordingly...This implies that… Hence…Consequently… This proves that…Ergo… It follows that…This suggests that…
To Assess Thinking Check it for –Clarity –Accuracy –Precision –Relevance –Depth –Breadth –Significance –Logic –fairness
Yikes, again! Article Review Grade Scale –90 - 100 A Three clearly labeled areas (Citation, Summary, & Reaction) APA Citation Well developed summary of thirty to fifty words Well developed reaction of three paragraphs that include five to eight sentences Works in three to five chapter terms and or concepts into the reaction Underlines concepts and terms in reaction –80 - 89 B Two to three clearly labeled areas (Citation, Summary, & Reaction) APA Citation Sufficiently developed summary that is short of the expectation Sufficiently developed reaction that lacks depth Works in two to three chapter terms and or concepts into the reaction –70 - 79 C Three areas are not clearly labeled Lacking a quality summary or APA Citation Reaction lacks clear development and direction –60 - 69 D Three areas are not clearly labeled Lacking a quality summary or APA Citation Reaction has no development and lacks sufficient depth –0 – 59 F Choose not to do it or did not follow instructions If you choose not to follow instructions it maybe handed back to you to fix what is wrong before it is accepted.
Advanced Stuff All CT is based on ASSUMPTIONS –Clearly state your assumptions –Are the assumptions relevant? –How do your assumption shape the question or problem? –What am I taking for granted? –What assumption has led me to the conclusion?
Advanced Stuff All CT is based on a POINT OF VIEW –Identify your point of view (liberal or conservative) –State other points of view –Try to cover various points of view. –From what point of view am I looking at this issue or question? –Is there another point of view that I should consider?
Advanced Stuff All CT is based on DATA, INFORMATION, & EVIDENCE –Restrict your statements to be covered by the data you have available. –Research and collect information on various viewpoints. –Collect sufficient data and information –What information am I using in coming to the conclusion? –What information do I need to settle the claim?
Advanced Stuff All CT is expressed and shaped by CONCEPTS and IDEAS. –Identify Key concepts and clearly explain them. –Use concepts with accuracy and precision
Advanced Stuff All CT contains INFERENCES or INTERPRETATIONS by which we draw CONCLUSIONS. –Draw conclusion and inferences only what the data and evidence implies. –Check conclusion and inferences for consistency. –Clearly identify the assumptions that have led you to your conclusions. –How did I reach this conclusion? –Is there another way to interpret the information?
Advanced Stuff All reasoning has IMPLICATIONS or CONSEQUENCES. –Consider all possible consequences. –Search for negative as well as positive consequences from your reasoning. –If someone accepts my position, what are the implications?