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Stepping it Up: Combining TBL and Critical Thinking Strategies Harry Meeuwsen University of Texas at el Paso.

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Presentation on theme: "Stepping it Up: Combining TBL and Critical Thinking Strategies Harry Meeuwsen University of Texas at el Paso."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stepping it Up: Combining TBL and Critical Thinking Strategies Harry Meeuwsen University of Texas at el Paso

2 Outline 1.Why explicit instruction in Critical Thinking? 2.How I apply Team Based Learning 3.Critical thinking definitions 4.Structure of Critical Thinking Strategies David PerkinsDavid Perkins Paul & ElderPaul & Elder Wolcott & LynchWolcott & Lynch 5.Commonalities in the models 6.Application and integration of Critical Thinking 7.Student reflections 8.Summary

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4 Critical Thinking is... the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not (William Graham Sumner, 1906) the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. (Scriven & Paul, 2007)

5 Why Teach Critical Thinking in TBL ? Critical Thinking as a formal strategy does not appear automatically when using TBL Our undergraduate students possess poor thinking strategies Most problems in movement education are open-ended problems that contain many uncertainties and multiple solutions TBL is an excellent strategy to teach Critical Thinking: Students engage each other in permanent teamsStudents engage each other in permanent teams Creates greater trust and better give-and-take discussionsCreates greater trust and better give-and-take discussions Can easily incorporate assignments thatCan easily incorporate assignments that Use open ended problems (Lynch, Wolcott, & Huber, 2000) :Use open ended problems (Lynch, Wolcott, & Huber, 2000) : Cannot be described completely and contain uncertaintiesCannot be described completely and contain uncertainties Have more than one possible solutionHave more than one possible solution Generate controversy, even among expertsGenerate controversy, even among experts Need to be addressed repeatedly over time as conditions changeNeed to be addressed repeatedly over time as conditions change Are better solved using a critical thinking strategyAre better solved using a critical thinking strategy Provide repeated opportunities to practiceProvide repeated opportunities to practice Progressively increase the complexity of the thought processProgressively increase the complexity of the thought process

6 Perkins (1984) Model Five Basic Questions 1.What is the purpose of the issue? 2.How is it structured and organized? 3.What is an example or model case? 4.What statements and reasons are used to explain and/or evaluate it? 5.How do we know it has achieved its purpose/has an impact?

7 Paul & Elder (1996) (see The Elements of Reasoning: All reasoning has a PURPOSE All reasoning has a PURPOSE All reasoning is an attempt to FIGURE SOMETHING OUT, TO SETTLE SOME QUESTION, TO SOLVE SOME PROBLEM. All reasoning is an attempt to FIGURE SOMETHING OUT, TO SETTLE SOME QUESTION, TO SOLVE SOME PROBLEM. All reasoning is based on ASSUMPTIONS All reasoning is based on ASSUMPTIONS All reasoning is done from some POINT OF VIEW All reasoning is done from some POINT OF VIEW

8 Paul & Elder (1996) continued 5.All reasoning is based on DATA, INFORMATION and EVIDENCE 6.All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, CONCEPTS and IDEAS 7.All reasoning contains INFERENCES or INTERPRETATIONS by which we draw CONCLUSIONS and give meaning to data 8.All reasoning leads somewhere or has IMPLICATIONS and CONSEQUENCES

9 Lynch, Wolcott, & Huber (2000) (see Components similar to Paul & Elders model Components similar to Paul & Elders model Is progressive: uses steps to attain better thinking (see handout) Is progressive: uses steps to attain better thinking (see handout) Is developmental: uses performance patterns to describe developmental level Is developmental: uses performance patterns to describe developmental level Creates a taxonomy of 2 dimensions: Creates a taxonomy of 2 dimensions: Steps (foundation + 4) Steps (foundation + 4) Performance Patterns (5) Performance Patterns (5)

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11 Developmental Performance Patterns Performance Pattern 0: Performance Pattern 0: Confused Fact-Finder Confused Fact-Finder Performance Pattern 1: Performance Pattern 1: Biased Jumper Biased Jumper Performance Pattern 2: Performance Pattern 2: Perpetual Analyzer Perpetual Analyzer Performance Pattern 3: Performance Pattern 3: Pragmatic Performer Pragmatic Performer Performance Pattern 4: Performance Pattern 4: Strategic Re-Visioner Strategic Re-Visioner

12 Common Components 1.Clarify nature of the problem: Identify the key question(s) and uncertaintiesIdentify the key question(s) and uncertainties 2.Identify and assess the quality and relevance of information Recognize personal and others biasesRecognize personal and others biases 3.Identify assumptions (self and others) 4.Identify various points of view that may underlie disagreements 5.Use inferences or evaluation strategy to draw conclusions 6.Assess the implications of conclusions 7.Implement solution, assess consequences, and revise solution when needed

13 Integrating TBL and CT: My attempt Ticket To Class 1 and In-Class Assignment 1 (see handout) Ticket To Class 1 and In-Class Assignment 1 (see handout) Connections to Critical Thinking Connections to Critical Thinking Use of multimedia (video clips are great hooks) Use of multimedia (video clips are great hooks) Throwing and Catching Video clip Throwing and Catching Video clip Attempted basketball fake Attempted basketball fake

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16 Progressively Demand More Pull through from initial exposure to summative assignment: Pull through from initial exposure to summative assignment: Summative Assignment Unit 2: Ticket To Class 3 and In-Class Assignment 3 (see handout) Summative Assignment Unit 2: Ticket To Class 3 and In-Class Assignment 3 (see handout) Summative Assignment Unit 4:Ticket To Class 12 and In-Class Assignment 12 (see handout) Summative Assignment Unit 4:Ticket To Class 12 and In-Class Assignment 12 (see handout) Connections to Critical Thinking Connections to Critical Thinking Critical Thinking based rubric Critical Thinking based rubric Outcomes Outcomes Students reflections (see handout) Students reflections (see handout)

17 Conclusions TBL is an excellent strategy to teach critical thinking but TBL is an excellent strategy to teach critical thinking but Same problem; specific choice; simultaneous presentation engages them in discussion but do not help students learn a critical thinking strategy Same problem; specific choice; simultaneous presentation engages them in discussion but do not help students learn a critical thinking strategy Teaching a formal critical thinking model benefits life- long learning; they are discipline-independent Teaching a formal critical thinking model benefits life- long learning; they are discipline-independent Students can learn how to think if the design of the assignment explicitly forces them to do so repeatedly Students can learn how to think if the design of the assignment explicitly forces them to do so repeatedly Without explicit instruction on CT most students will not learn how to think things through systematically Without explicit instruction on CT most students will not learn how to think things through systematically Moving up one pattern (Wolcott & Lynch) in one semester is attainable Moving up one pattern (Wolcott & Lynch) in one semester is attainable Caution: Level of thinking is context, mood dependent Caution: Level of thinking is context, mood dependent Content attainment is secondary to broader goals but benefits greatly Content attainment is secondary to broader goals but benefits greatly

18 Summary 1.How I apply Team Based Learning 2.Critical thinking definitions and models 3.Application and integration of Critical Thinking in homework and in-class assignments 4.Student reflections


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