Critical Thinking is... Vital to nursing. More than gathering facts and figures. A search for the best answer - not just any answer. A systematic way of thinking.
Critical Thinkers ask... What am I taking for granted? Did I explore all points of view? Do I understand the question? What information do I need? What are the implications?
The Four Critical Thinking Skills: Reading Listening Speaking Writing
To Improve Critical Reading... Highlight the main ideas as you read. If most of the text is highlighted you are not reading critically. Join a study group and see if your main idea is the same as fellow group member’s. Dialogue with yourself to identify the main idea of your reading. Try to state the main idea in your own words.
To Improve Critical Listening... Restate the points made in a discussion with another student to see if you’ve understood him or her. Focus on what a speaker is saying and listen for key points. While listening, make note of anything you find confusing, and ask about it later.
To Improve Critical Writing... Summarize, in your own words, what you’re going to write about. Put your writing away for a day and then reread it. Ask yourself if you understand the most important points? Ask a friend for input.
To Improve Critical Speaking... Maintain clear and accurate logic. Avoid ambiguous statements. Listen to yourself for any personal biases. Practice in front of a small group and ask for feedback.
Standards for Critical Thinking Clarity vs. Lack of Clarity Precision vs. imprecision Specificity vs. Vagueness Accuracy vs. Inaccuracy Relevance vs. irrelevance Adequacy vs. inadequacy Consistency vs. inconsistency Logical vs. illogical Depth vs. superficiality Completeness vs. incompleteness Significance vs. triviality Fairness vs. bias
Reasoning is... The process of solving problems by using critical thinking skills. An attempt to figure something out, solve a problem, or settle a question.
All Reasoning... has purpose. is based on assumptions. Has a point of view. is based on data and information. is expressed through concepts. contains inferences. has implications and consequences.
A Disciplined Thinker is... One who reasons through problems using critical thinking skills.
Five Traits of a Disciplined Thinker Reason Humility Courage Integrity Perseverance