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© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.1 Chapter 5 The Behaviour of Interest Rates
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.2 Determining the Quantity Demanded of an Asset Wealth - the total resources owned by the individual, including all assets Expected Return - the return expected over the next period on one asset relative to alternative assets Risk - the degree of uncertainty associated with the return on one asset relative to alternative assets Liquidity - the ease and speed with which an asset can be turned into cash relative to alternative assets
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.3 Theory of Asset Demand Holding all other factors constant: 1.The quantity demanded of an asset is positively related to wealth. 2.The quantity demanded of an asset is positively related to its expected return relative to alternative assets. 3.The quantity demanded of an asset is negatively related to the risk of its returns relative to alternative assets. 4.The quantity demanded of an asset is positively related to its liquidity relative to alternative assets.
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.4 Theory of Asset Demand (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.5 Supply and Demand for Bonds At lower prices (higher interest rates), ceteris paribus, the quantity demanded of bonds is higher—an inverse relationship. At lower prices (higher interest rates), ceteris paribus, the quantity supplied of bonds is lower—a positive relationship.
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.6 Supply and Demand for Bonds (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.7 Derivation of Bond Demand Curve i = RET e =(F- P)/P Point A: Figure 5-1 P = $950 i= ($1000-$950)/$950 = 0.053 = 5.3% B d = $100 billion
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.8 Market Equilibrium Occurs when the amount that people are willing to buy (demand) equals the amount that people are willing to sell (supply) at a given price. When B d = B s the equilibrium (or market clearing) price and interest rate When B d > B s ‘excess demand’ price will rise and interest rate will fall When B d < B s ‘excess supply’ price will fall and interest rate will rise
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.9 See overheads that convert this supply and demand for bonds into a loanable funds framework that allows us to relate the workings of the bond market to the monetary sector of the economy.
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.10 Shifts in the Demand for Bonds Wealth - in an expansion with growing wealth, the demand curve for bonds shifts to the right Expected Returns - higher expected interest rates in the future lower the expected return for long-term bonds, shifting the demand curve to the left Expected Inflation - an increase in the expected rate of inflations lowers the expected return for bonds, causing the demand curve to shift to the left Risk - an increase in the riskiness of bonds causes the demand curve to shift to the left Liquidity - increased liquidity of bonds results in the demand curve shifting right
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.11 Shifts in the Demand for Bonds (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.12 Shifts in the Demand for Bonds (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.13 Shifts in the Supply of Bonds Expected profitability of investment opportunities - in an expansion, the supply curve shifts to the right Expected inflation - an increase in expected inflation shifts the supply curve for bonds to the right Government activities - increased budget deficits/surpluses shift the supply curve to the right/left
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.14 Shifts in the Supply of Bonds (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.15 Response to a Change in Expected Inflation
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.16 Expected Inflation and Interest Rates
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.17 Response to a Business Cycle Expansion
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.18 Business Cycles and Interest Rates
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.19 Review of the monetary sector that macro economists call the ‘money market’ because it looks at the demand and supply for money balances (i.e. M1 or M2)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.20 Response to a Lower Savings Rate
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.21 The Liquidity Preference Framework
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.22 Can also be explained in terms of the loanable funds framework that relates total loanable funds to the interest rates or yields to maturity for debt instruments
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.23 The Liquidity Preference Framework (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.24 Shifts in the Demand for Money Income Effect - a higher level of income causes the demand for money at each interest rate to increase and the demand curve to shift to the right Price-Level Effect - a rise in the price level causes the demand for money at each interest rate to increase and the demand curve to shift to the right
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.25 Shifts in the Supply of Money Assume that the supply of money is controlled by the central bank. An increase in the money supply engineered by the Bank of Canada will shift the supply curve for money to the right.
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.26 Shifts in the Demand and Supply of Money
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.27 Shifts in the Demand and Supply of Money (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.28 Shifts in the Demand and Supply of Money (Cont’d)
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.29 Money and Interest Rates Income effect of an increase in the money supply is a rise in the interest rate in response to a higher level of income. Price-Level effect of an increase in the money supply is a rise in interest rates in response to the rise in the price level. The expected-inflation effect of an increase in the money supply is a rise in interest rates in response to the rise in the expected inflation rate.
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.30 Does a Higher Rate of Growth of the Money Supply Lower Interest Rates?
© 2008 Pearson Education Canada5.31 Money Growth and Interest Rates
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 Monetary Policy and Aggregate Demand.
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