Presentation on theme: "Cultural Diversity Health care providers must work with and provide care to may different people. Therefore, every health care provider must be aware."— Presentation transcript:
1 Cultural DiversityHealth care providers must work with and provide care to may different people.Therefore, every health care provider must be aware of factors that cause each individual to be unique.
2 Uniqueness Uniqueness is influenced by many factors: Also: Physical CharacteristicsGenderBody SizeSkin ColorAlso:Family LifeSocioeconomic statusreligious BeliefsGeographic LocationEducation, Occupation and life experience
3 A major influence on a person’s uniqueness is Cultural and Ethnic Heritage
4 Culture Culture is defined as the : Values Beliefs Attitudes Languages SymbolsRitualsCustoms of a particular group of people often passed down from generation to generation
5 Culture Culture provides a blueprint or set of rules for living. Culture is learned – It is taught by others, ie: children learn behavior by imitating parents.Culture is shared – common practices and beliefs are shared with others in cultural group.Culture is social in nature – understand appropriate behavior based on traditions.Culture is dynamic and ever changing – New ideas generate different standards this allows cultural groups to meet changing needs.
6 EthnicityEthnicity – is the classification of people based on national origin and/or culture.Members of a certain ethnic group may share common heritage, customs, language and beliefs.Many different ethnic groups in US – Melting Pot:African AmericanAsian AmericanEuropean AmericanHispanic AmericanMiddle Eastern AmericanNative AmericanWithin each group there are subgroups ie: German-Italian
7 RaceRace is a classification based on physical or biological characteristics such as color of skin, hair, eye color, facial features blood type or bone structure.Race is usually used to label a group of people and to explain patterns of behavior.In reality race cuts across multiple ethnic/cultural groupsAfrican Blacks and Caribbean BlacksShare same physical features : very different cultural beliefs and values
8 Cultural DiversityCulture, Ethnicity and race do influence a person’s behavior, self- perception and judgment - this is called: Cultural DiversityCultural Assimilation – process where multiple cultures blend to become one – United States – Melting PotIn reality U.S. is becoming a “Salad Bowl” – cultural differences are appreciated and respected – multicultural societySensitivity – the ability to recognize differences is essential in todays health care. ie: calling someone by first name is not acceptable in some cultures
9 Bias – Prejudice - Stereotyping Bias – (You prefer one over another) a preference that inhibits and leads to impartial judgmentAge – young people are physically and mentally superior to older peopleEducation – College educated people are superior (smarter) to uneducatedEconomic – Rich people are superior (deserve better treatment) to poorPhysical Size – Obese and short people are inferiorOccupation – Nurses are inferior to doctorsSexual Preferences – Homosexuals are inferior to heterosexualsGender - Women are inferior to men
10 Bias – Prejudice - Stereotyping Prejudice – means to pre-judge. A prejudice is a strong feeling or belief about a person without reviewing the facts.Prejudice people view their ideas, beliefs or behaviors as right and others as wrong.They are frequently afraid of things that are different.Prejudices causes fear and distrust and interferes with relationshipsEvery individual is prejudice to some degree – we all want to feel like our beliefs are right.However it is important to be aware of our prejudices and make every effort not let them influence our behavior in health care.Obtain as much information as possible about other individuals to better understand them and communicate successfully.
11 Bias – Prejudices - Stereotyping Stereotyping – assumption is made that everyone in a particular group is the same.Labels individualsie: All blondes are dumbSimilar stereotypes exists with regard to race, gender, ethnic/cultural group, occupation, etc.It is essential to remember everyone is unique.
12 Bias – Prejudice - Stereotyping All are barriers to effective communication and relationships with others.Health care workers must be alert/aware to the barriers and make every effort to avoid them.
13 Overcoming Bias, Prejudice, Stereotyping Ways to avoid barriers in Health Care:Know and be aware of your own values & beliefsObtain as much information on others as possibleBe sensitive to behaviors of othersRemember, you are not being pressured to adopt other beliefs – just respect theirsDevelop friendships with a wide variety of people from other groups.Ask questions and encourage others to ask questions to share beliefsEvaluate all information before making decisionsBe open to differencesAvoid jokes that may offend othersRemember, mistakes happen and apologize and/or forgive.
14 Family OrganizationRefers to the structure of a family and the dominant or decision-making person in the family. Nuclear Family – usually consists of a mother, father and children, may also consist of single parent and children (European/American Families) Extended Family – includes nuclear family and grandparents, aunts uncles, cousins (Asian, Hispanic and Native American)
15 Family Organization Usually affects care of: ChildrenSickElderlyExtended Family usually care for its own while Nuclear tends to use outside assistancePatriarchal – father or oldest male makes decisionsMatriarchal – Mother or oldest female makes decisionsIts important to ask questions and observe the family when making health care decisions
16 Family Organization Important to ask questions Who are the members of family?Do you have any children? Who will care for them when you are sick?Do you have an extended family?Who will care for you while you are sick?Who is the head of household?Where do you live?Was your entire family born on the US?Do you have family that will be visiting you?
17 Language Language many times can be a barrier to communication. Health care provider must determine patients ability to communicate not only to patient but to family.Do you speak English as primary language?What is language spoken at home?Do you read English or another language?Do you have a family member or friend that can interpret information for you?
18 LanguageImportant when speaking to someone who has limited English skills to:Talk slowlyUse simple termsUse gesture or picturesUse non-verbal clues – smiles, gentle touch.Avoid talking louder.Try learning some words or phrases in patient’s languageUse translation services or translation cards or Translation App
19 Personal Space and Touch Often called territorial space – the distance required between people to feel comfortable.Varies greatly between cultures – some cultures like close contact ie: Arabs are very close contact, like touch and even smell of person. Women stand closer than men, children closer than adultsCambodians never touch opposite sex in public, only parent may touch child on head.Never assume something about a person’s personal space- always ask questions.
20 Personal Space and Touch Health Care providers have to use touch and invade personal space to provide care.Blood pressure cuff , use of a stethoscope, EKG electrodesHealth care provider should use slow movements, explain procedures, encourage patient to relax.Patients sometimes still are uncomfortable so be alert to signals: tensing up, turning head, pulling away.
21 Personal Space and Touch When providing personal care (BODY WASHING, ETC.) Ask patient if they have any preferences?Do you prefer to do as much as you can on your own?Would you like a family member to assist?Are there any special routines you follow?Do you prefer to bath in morning or evening?Is there anything I can do to make you more comfortable?
22 Eye Contact Eye contact varies between cultures Europeans Americans view it as trustworthy, show of interest.Asian Americans sometimes consider it rude.Native Americans – only side (peripheral) vision, direct vision is hostile and threatening.Hispanic/African use brief contact but look away as sign of respect and inventiveness.Health care workers must be alert to comfort levels of patients while using direct eye contactRecognize cultural diversity – ie: Lack of eye contact is often interpreted as not listening while it can indicate respect (Asian Culture).
23 Gestures Gestures are used to communicate many different things: Nodding head for yes, side to side for noIn India – head motions are exact opposite.Pointing finger in US is common to stress a specific pointAsian and native American its considered a threat.OK sign is considered insulting to AsiansHealth care workers must be aware of how patients respond to hand gestures, if you notice a person uncomfortable, avoid using it.
24 Health Care BeliefsMost common health care system in U.S. is biomedical or “Western Medicine”Cause of disease based on microorganisms, diseased cells and process of aging. Value put on education and preventionWhen cause is determined than health care is performed to eliminate the cause.Use licensed doctors or practitionersOther cultures believe in harmony of body and spiritualityUse Folk Practitioners – Spiritualists, Herbalists Native healersIts important to remember not all individuals believe in and follow U.S. or Western Medicine.
25 Alternative MedicineNutritional Medicine – organic food, herbs, vitamins, anti-toxinsMind and Body Control – relaxation, meditation, hypnotherapyBody Movement Methods- Chiropractor, yoga, tai chiSpiritual Methods – Faith healing, prayer and spiritual counselingEvery individual has the right to believe what they want and to choose what method they preferHealthcare workers need to be aware of the differences and accommodate when reasonably available.
26 Spirituality and Religion Spirituality and religion are inherent part of every cultural group.Spirituality – is defined as the beliefs individuals have about themselves, there connections with others and relationship with a higher power.When a person’s spiritual beliefs are firmly established, they tend to have a basis for understanding life.Beliefs can be variedAtheist – don’t believe in any deityAgnostic – believe existence in god can not be proved or disproved
27 Religion Do you have a religious affiliation? Are there any religious practices that make you feel better?Do you normally pray at certain times of the day?Would you like a person of some religion to visit? Priest, etc.Do you consult a religious healerDo your beliefs restrict certain foods or drinks?Do you observe any specific holidays, have objects that need certain care?As long as they do not cause harm, every effort should be made to accommodate the religious needs of every patient.
28 Respecting Cultural Diversity The key is to regard each person as a unique individualBe ware of the needs of every patientRespect the needs of each patientTry to accommodate for every need as long as it does not harm the patient.