Urinary Tract Infections Urethritis – Inflammation of the urethra Cystitis – Inflammation of the urinary bladder Pyelonephritis – Infection of the kidneys
Urological Obstructions Urethral strictures – Narrowing of the lumen of the urethra caused by scar tissue Renal Calculi (kidney stones) – Small stones that form somewhere in the renal structures Hydronephrosis – Results from untreated obstruction in the urinary tract
Pediatrics Urine specimens – Collection bag – Clean catch – Catheterization – 24 hour urine collection Genitourinary tract defects (newborn) – Exstrophy of the bladder
Pediatrics (infant) Urinary tract infections – Fairly common in the diaper age – E. coli accounts for 80% Wilms’ Tumor (nephroblastoma) – Most common abdominal neoplasms of early childhood
Pediatrics (preschool) Nephrotic syndrome – Lipoid nephrosis – Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome – Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) Acute glomerulonephritis – Appears to be an allergic reaction to a specific infection (usually group A strep)
Pediatrics (school age) Enuresis – Bedwetting, involuntary urination beyond the age when control is often acquired. Encopresis – Chronic involuntary fecal soiling beyond the age of when control is expected.