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Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 1 The Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES) Rating scale technology for identifying students with academic difficulties and planning interventions to improve their functioning.
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 2 Academic competence is… a multidimensional construct composed of the skills, attitudes and behaviours of a learner that contribute to academic success in the classroom. Definition of Academic Competence
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 3 Assess academic skills and enabling behaviours for students in grades k-12 and college Facilitate planning and evaluation of classroom-based interventions for students experiencing academic difficulty Purpose and Uses of the ACES
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 4 Three record forms: Teacher, Student and College Student u Teacher Form appropriate for Grades k-12 u Student Form appropriate for Grades 6-12 u College Student Form appropriate for students at 2- and 4-year institutions Technical Manual Scoring Assistant (Optional) ACES Overview
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 5 v Please see your copy of the ACES record form to review sample items. ACES Teacher: Sample Items
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 6 The Academic Intervention Monitoring System (AIMS) is a companion guidebook that describes effective intervention strategies for skills measured by the ACES. The AIMS Forms are questionnaires designed to facilitate identification of specific instructional or learning tactics used by teachers, parents and students. Companion Intervention Resources: AIMS
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 7 Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) provides a quick and reliable method for assessing change in student skills during intervention. GASs are developed by users after completing the ACES. Together, the ACES, AIMS & a GAS can be used as part of a 5-step problem-solving process for developing and evaluating interventions for academic difficulties. Companion Intervention Monitoring Method: GAS
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 8 1.Identify academic concerns 2.Analyse academic concerns within the instructional environment 3.Plan for intervention 4.Implement intervention & monitor progress 5.Evaluate intervention Key Steps in a Problem- Solving Process
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 9 Research using the ACES has indicated that the skills, attitudes and behaviours contributing to academic competence fall into one of two domains: Academic Skills or Academic Enablers. (DiPerna & Elliott, 1999) Model of Academic Competence
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 10 Academic Competence Study Skills Interpersonal Skills Academic Skills Reading Mathematics Critical Thinking Engagement Motivation
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 11 Academic Skills Subscales u Reading/ Language Arts u Mathematics u Critical Thinking Academic Enablers Subscales u Motivation u Engagement u Study Skills u Interpersonal Skills Academic Skills and Enablers Subscales
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 12 v Motivation reflects a student’s approach, persistence and level of interest regarding academic subjects v Engagement reflects attention and active participation in classroom activities Academic Skills and Enablers Subscales
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 13 v Study skills are behaviours that facilitate the processing of new material and taking tests v Interpersonal skills include co-operative learning behaviours necessary to interact with others Academic Enablers Subscales
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 14 Teachers are accurate in predicting students’ achievement on standardised tests and distinguishing between students with low or high academic performance. Key Studies on “teachers as tests” u Hoge & Coladarci (1989) u Gresham, Mac Millan & Bocian (1997) u Demaray & Elliott (1998) Teacher Judgements of Academic Performance
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 15 v 2 scales: Academic Skills (33 items) & Academic Enablers (40 items) v Requires less than 20 minutes to complete v 2 ratings/item: Proficiency & Importance v Competence ranges: Developing, Competent, & Advanced v Worksheet for linking assessment results to interventions & creating a GAS ACES-Teacher Form: Fast Facts
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 16 1000 students u Four grade clusters: k-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 (n = 250 each) u Even distribution across sex u 64% Caucasian, 15% African American, 15% Hispanic, 6% Other Race u 9% students with disabilities, 19% students at-risk, 72% students with no identified concerns ACES-Teacher: Standardisation Sample
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 17 v Principal Components Analysis (PCA) including all 73 items yielded a 2-factor solution: Academic Skills & Academic Enablers v Separate PCAs of the 33 Academic Skills items and 40 Academic Enablers items yielded 3- and 4-factor solutions respectively v 100% of items on the Academic Skill subscales had primary loadings >.40 v 100% of items on the Academic Enablers subscales had primary loadings >.40 ACES-Teacher: Evidence for Internal Structure
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 18 v Internal consistency co-efficients (Cronbach’s alphas) from.94-.99 v SEMs from 2.46-3.07 for Academic Skills and 3.63-4.73 for Academic Enablers v Test-retest stability coefficients from.88-.97 v Inter-rater correlations from.31-.65 ACES-Teacher: Evidence for Reliability
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 19 v Academic Skills - Iowa Test Basic Skills Composite correlations from.66-.76 v Academic Skills - Social Skills Rating System Academic Competence correlations from.75-.80 v Discriminant function analysis with known groups (students with no identified concerns vs. students at-risk or with disabilities) indicated the ACES correctly identified average of 86% of students across multiple samples ACES-Teacher: Evidence for Validity
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 20 v Teacher form includes worksheet to facilitate the use of assessment results to select and design interventions v Use ACES Behaviour Classification Scheme to identify strengths, performance problems and acquisition problems in academic skills and/or academic enablers Identifying Target Skills for Intervention
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 21 v Strengths u Proficiency = 3, 4, or 5 u Importance = 2 or 3 v Performance Problems u Proficiency = 2 u Importance = 2 or 3 v Acquisition Problems u Proficiency = 1 u Importance = 2 or 3 ACES Behaviour Classification Scheme
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 22 v Analyse target skills within the context of the instructional environment (using AIMS Intervention Forms, observations, and/or interview) v Plan intervention based on the results of this analysis. (Consult AIMS Guidebook and other resources for intervention strategies.) Analyse Environment & Plan Interventions
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 23 v Develop Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) to monitor progress via teacher ratings v Implement intervention and collect GAS data to monitor effectiveness Monitor Intervention Progress
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 24 Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method of evaluating interventions that is: 1.Individualised, 2.Criterion-referenced, 3.Atheoretical, 4.Time efficient, and 5.Based on rating scale technology. GAS: A General Description
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 25 There are three common features of GASs. They all have…. v A target behavior(s), v Descriptions of treatment outcomes in objective terms, and v Three to five descriptions of probable treatment outcomes that range from “least favorable” to “most favourable.” GAS: Specific Features
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 26 + 2 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ + 1 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 0 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ -1 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ - 2 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Goal Attainment Scale Worksheet
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 27 ACES provides two methods for assessing the effects of an intervention: v Visual analysis of GAS results v Pretest & Posttest ACES ratings analysed using a Reliability Change Index (RCI = Post-test Mean-Pretest Mean/SEM) Evaluate Intervention Outcomes
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 28 v Three forms: Teacher, Student, & College v Assesses academic skills and enabling behaviors for students in Grades k-12 or college v Designed to facilitate a pre-referral problem-solving process v Research indicates strong evidence for internal structure, reliability and validity v AIMS companion Guidebook and Intervention Forms to assist with intervention planning ACES: Key Points to Remember
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 29 Respects Teachers’ Knowledge Solution Focused Data-Drive & Theoretically Balanced Summary Themes
Copyright © 2001 by The Psychological Corporation 30 Demaray, M. K., & Elliott, S. N. (1998). Teachers’ judgments of students’ academic functioning: A comparison of actual and predicted performances. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 8-24. DiPerna, J. C., & Elliott, S. N. (1999). Development and validation of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 17, 207-225. Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Bocian, K. M. (1997). Teachers as “tests”: Differential validity of teacher judgments in identifying students at-risk for learning difficulties. School Psychology Review, 26, 47-60. Hoge, R. D., & Coladarci, T. (1989). Teacher-based judgments of academic achievement: A review of literature. Review of Educational Research, 3, 297-313. References
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