Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Earth’s Resources and Environmental Protection"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick Chapter 5: Earth’s Resources and Environmental ProtectionHolly Barcus, Morehead State UniversityAnd Joe Naumann, UMSL
2 ResourcesClick on the animation below to see the video on resources
3 What Is a Natural Resource? Anything from nature that exists in finite quantities which people use and valueElements ofAtmosphereBiosphereHydrosphereLithosphereDistinguished from human creations and inventions
5 A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT IS ALSO ESSENTIAL TO OUR LIFE!
6 Resource Characteristics Defined byCultural valuesWhat is used and valued by peopleWood, mud or brick buildingSwamps become wetlands, cultural shiftsAvailable technologyPotential resourcesAbility to extract and useEconomicsSupply and demand – influences pricesExternalities
8 Conservation is the Answer to Natural Resource Use Conservation is the wise use of resourcesWise use – keeping the 4 laws of ecology in mindWise use – seeking maximum efficiency in an environmentally safe wayNot using resources is preservation, not conservation
9 Mineral Resources Metallic Nonmetallic Copper, lead, siliconNonmetallicBuilding stone, graphite, slate, quartzDistribution of deposits is unevenCartelsDepletion and substitution
13 Resources & Technology Generally, the higher the level of technology, the larger the number of things viewed as natural resources or resources.19th Century Native Americans and 19th Century Americans andAmerindian world view & technologyEuropean/American world view & technology
14 European View of Coal Greatly desired after the industrial revolution Explored for coal deposits & paid high pricesTook territory with coal fields as “spoils” of war – i.e. Saar Valley (France/Germany border area)1793 occupied by France in French Revolution]– France controlled it– Prussia controlled it (Germany)– League of Nationsreturned to Germany– France– Economic union with France1957-Present – part of Germany
15 More Resource Terminology Resource Reserves – What has not been extracted from the earth or been harvested.Proven reserves – known deposits that are economically feasible to exploit – the only quantity we can really count on using.Known deposits – not currently economically feasible to exploit at current prices or technologyUndiscovered deposits that may exist– can’t be counted on for the future – some may be feasible to exploit & some may not be.
17 Efficiency is the keyEfficiency prolongs the use of all types of resourcesEfficiency in extraction – minimize wasteEfficiency in use – get the most outMost important in the nonrenewable resourcesSustained yield is the best approach to renewable resources – use them at nature’s rate of renewalExpanded recycling will maximize the quantity of reusable resources and expand the parameters.Finding substitutes & alternatives where possible
18 Solid Waste Landfills Incineration Concept of Urban Ore Sanitary landfillsNIMBYIncinerationReduces volumeProvides energyConcept of Urban Ore
19 Recycling of reusable resources Reduces need for landfills and incineratorsReuses natural resourcesBarriersWaste separationConsumer resistanceLack of marketHidden costsIndirect lossesNew products and technologiesShared costs with consumers
22 Energy ResourcesSolarHydroelectricWindFossil fuelsGeothermal
23 Energy Resources & Industry Energy Resources = “Master” Natural Resources – the mainspring of industryFossil fuels currently are the major source – “solar” power -- NONRENEWABLEEnergy can be Extracted in a Number of WaysMuscle powerWater powerSolar powerFossil fuel powerNuclear power (only one that isn’t releasing solar energy)
25 Energy & GDP correlation As more developing countries develop economically, the use of energy world-wide will greatly increase.As more energy is demanded world-wide, the cost of energy will increase (laws of supply & demand)
27 Fossil Fuels Oil, natural gas, coal Nonrenewable Stored energy created over millions of yearsNonrenewableWood primary energy source until 19th centuryOil is most important energy resource todayU.S. and Canadian industryNatural gas, oil, coalDistribution of fossil fuelsUnevenReserves
28 Oil Distribution Oil production and pricing Future of fossil fuels 2/3 of oil reserves in Middle EastNorth America and Europe have highest per capita oil consumption ratesOil production and pricingOPEC, 1960Oil crisesFuture of fossil fuelsProven reservesUnconventional sources
29 Energy Resources Non-Renewable Renewable Crude Oil (40% of all energy – excluding wood)CoalNatural GasOil ShaleTar SandsRenewableWind & solarHydropowerBiomass
30 Coal: most abundant fossil fuel Pollution from use of coal & production of coal is a problem (costs money to reduce it, otherwise costs are passed on as medical problems for people not associated with the production of coal)Coal can be converted to gas to produce power tooNeededEfficiency through new technologyPollution control at all levelsLarge quantities exist in Siberia, but most are not economically feasible to develop at this time
32 Feasibility increases as oil & gas prices increase
33 General mining–coal particularly Surface mining – cheaper initially, but restoration of the land surface can be costlyShaft mining – more expensive initiallyBack-filling shaft mines can be very costly. Mine safety is also a major concern.
36 Oil – major energy fuel Crude petroleum Extending use Major fuel: gasoline, kerosene, diesel, aviation fuel, etc.LubricantsPetrochemicals: plastics (tapes, CDs, & other flexible plastics); fertilizers; insecticides; pesticides; & othersMore than 60% of oil reserves are around the Persian GulfU.S. imports approximately 50% of its petroleumExtending useNew deposits (unlikely); improved extraction efficiencyImproved efficiency in use of petroleumSubstitutesLimited recycling (motor oil to fuel oil)
42 Natural Gas – fossil fuel Cleanest burning – least pollutingLimited quantitiesShipping it great distances requires liquefaction or pipelinesAs with other fossil fuels, it contributes to the “greenhouse” gases in the atmosphere and promotes global warming
43 World flows of natural gas and U.S.A. pipelines
45 Nuclear Processes Nuclear Energy Fission verses fusion Fusion Problems Potential accidents (safety)Radioactive waste (safety)Public opposition (NIMBY)High cost
46 Fusion PowerNuclear Fusion – has the potential to provide power without nuclear wasteCurrently only a theoryHave been unable to produce more energy than is consumedHolds hope for the future if technological problems can be solved.
47 Nuclear Power Generator Chernobyl was built without adequate containment to save money.3 Mile Island had double containment structures.
48 Nuclear AccidentsClick on the mad scientist below to see the video
51 Nuclear EnergyLargely developed by the developed countries of the world
52 Renewable Energy Biomass Wood – traditional source of energy in many developing countries – renewable but also destroyableWaste – plant wastes such as corn stalksMethane production from “digesters”Hydroelectric Power – methane release is pollutionDepends on good sites at economically feasible distances from potential marketsSolar Power – climate and weather relatedResearch discouraged by utility companiesOther Renewable Energy ResourcesGeothermal Energy – depends on geological conditionsWind Power – only feasible in some areas
53 Biomass & Solar power Biomass can be converted to gas almost anywhere. Solar power is well suited for desert areas where cloudy days are rare.Biomass can be converted to gas almost anywhere.
55 Hydroelectric PowerApproximately 25% of world’s electricity is generated by hydroelectric power facilities.
56 Hydroelectric Power Sites Abundant, year-round flow of waterSufficient fall – the greater the fall, the greater the power transferredGood building Site such as a narrowing of the valley or a gorgeAvailable consumers or potential consumers within reasonable distanceFinancing – this isn’t inexpensiveSites in order: #1 Three Gorges Dam, China; #2 Congo basin #3 Amazon basin (poorest)
57 Aswan Dam: the negatives Dam does produce much electricity & reduce floods & expand irrigation, BUT. . .Disrupted natural flooding and siltation of farmlandFarmers now need to purchase fertilizersIrrigation water is pumped where nature took it beforeSpread schistosomiasis – snail fever or bilharziasisReduced quantity of nutrients reaching the Mediterranean & put fishermen out of workRich Nile delta is eroding due to reduced silt depositsRichest farmland is being lost
59 Energy policies for the future More hydroelectric powerAlternative fuels for transportation – hybrid, etc.Research into practical solar powerContinue increasing efficiency of appliancesDesign more energy-efficient homesOperate schools 12 months a year (a smaller building could accommodate the number of students)
60 Nonfuel Mineral Resources The Distribution of ResourcesLittle relationship to size of countryUneven distribution of resources among countriesCopper: A Case StudyWorld reserves may last only 33 yearsDemand for copperConducts both heat and electricity wellCan be hammered into thin sheets or drawn into thin wiresResists corrosionUneven distribution – convergence of W. S & N America w/Pacific plate & in AustraliaIncreasing efficiency & recycling
61 Minerals in the global economy No country is self-sufficient in natural resourcesWorld trade is the only way for countries to obtain what they lack and sell what they have in abundance – all countries benefit from this tradeSelf-sufficiency and isolation are not feasible for any country, even the USA, unless people are willing to GREATLY lower their standards of living – not a popular alternative to the way of life to which they have become accustomed.
63 New technology makes it economically feasible to mine lower concentrations of copper Shrinking supply of copper causes it to sell at higher prices and makes it more feasible too.
64 Human causation Acid deposition Urban air pollution Air Pollution Predominately fossil fuelsAcid depositionAcid rain - sulfur, nitrogen oxidesUrban air pollutionWind, temperature, sunlight
65 Major Sources of Air Pollution * Transportation sources using fossil fuelsIndustries processesElectric power generationResidential consumption of fossil fuelsPoor soil conservation practices and farming marginal lands*Not in order of impact
68 Dealing With Pollution The best way is to deal with the problem at the source – prevent the pollutants from entering the air in the first place.Pollution control measures – industrial & domesticChanged life-style
70 Concentration and dilution Reduced oxygen levels Water PollutionSourcePointNon–pointConcentration and dilutionReduced oxygen levelsBiochemical oxygen demandWastewater and diseaseChemical and toxic pollutants
72 Nature has the ability to clean water Nature is self sustaining through natural processesHumans often overload the processes and cause breakdowns in nature’s abilities – pollution
73 Land–Coastal Resources Coastal WetlandsEstuarine zone – essential to health of the neritic zones – the commercially productive shallow coastal waters.Breeding ground for much wildlifeScientists say 50% of wetlands have been lost to “development”Outflow of fresh water from streams & action of tides mix deep ocean waters with surface waters in estuaries, contributing to their biological productivity & diversityLower saline content than the open seaMany shellfish do better in lower salinity at some point in their life cycle.
74 Pollution threatens estuarine zones Dead zones develop in the neritic zone near the mouths of major rivers like the Mississippi – agricultural & other pollutants
75 Controlling Pollution Common strategyRemoval before entering environmentSewage treatmentCatalytic convertersSmoke stack scrubbersEnd of pipe strategies
76 Paradigm shift in the 1990’s Factors Preventing PollutionParadigm shift in the 1990’sStop producing pollutionFactorsMounting liability and regulation concernsReduce costsImprove image with consumers and regulators
78 Land Resources -- forests Forest Resources have greatly shrunkCutting for farming and lumberingLumbering done for years without replanting – sustained yield is the only sensible approach for national healthControversy over cutting methods – selective, or clearIncreased erosion and run-off (flooding)U.S. National Forests effort to preserve someSome administrations in D.C. have been more willing to allow private companies to exploit timber and mineralsTropical Forests – major oxygen producersCutting threatens climate change & plant gene poolLoss of potentially important plants for medicine
79 Cutting Methods Selective reduces erosion and runoff May be initially more expensiveFits in easily with sustained-yield programsClear-cutting promotes erosion & more runoffPassed-on costs make this more costly
83 Disappearing Treasure Services of forest–home & life-source of peopleProtects soil from erosion & reduces floodingMajor oxygen producers & pollutant filters & humidity “pumps” (helps maintain the tropical rainforest climate)Habitat for wildlifeGreatest variety of plant species than any other biome – many with medical uses – many not catalogued as yet
84 Often overlooked soilThe food chain depends on 4 basic factors: sunlight, soil, air, and water.Soil: the foundation & it can be destroyed – it takes far longer to create 1” of topsoil than to destroy one.To keep food production ecologically maximized:Anti-erosion farming methodsMaintain the micro-organisms that normally live in soilRenew humus content to keep it loose and absorbent of water and to return nutrients to the soilGive farming a higher priority than urban development – good level land reserved for farming
85 Resolving user conflict Balancing resource and recreation Forest ManagementResolving user conflictBalancing resource and recreationGovernment involvementMarketplace demands
86 Resource ManagementEnvironmentally Sustainable Economy – the only sensible approach – satisfies current needs without jeopardizing the prospects for future generationsSustained yield – environmentally friendly loggingEfficiency in extraction and in use for productionPrinciples of environmentally sustainable economySoil erosion cannot exceed soil formation.Forest destruction cannot exceed forest regenerationSpecies extinction cannot exceed species evolutionFish catches cannot exceed the regenerative capacityPollutants can’t exceed capacity of system to absorb them.
87 More Resource Management Conservation – Wise use, not preservationReuse of Materials --WEALTH FROM WASTEFinite materials that can be reusedThe costs of recycling may offset other costs that will be incurred if recycling is not practicedSubstitution – extends the usefulness of any resource, particularly those finite ones which are non-renewable and non reusable.Alternative energy sources are vitalCooperate with natural processes
88 Water – So Very VitalEarth’s total of fresh water in lakes, rivers, & streams = .3% of the earth’s total water store.The hydrologic cycle keeps replenishing it within the limits of the processFresh water occurrence variesIreland – excess 878,000 yrd3 per person annuallyPersian Gulf countries desalinate sea waterAverage US citizen uses 62 times as much as the average citizen of Ghana69% of water withdrawn used for agriculture – varies by country: USA 42%; China 87%
89 Stop All Waste Reusable fresh water getting scarce What can be done? World population keeps growing but water supply is rather fixed.Pollution is increasing (developing nations often ignore pollution control)What can be done?Redesign industrial processes to use less – also recover & recycleRedesign appliances–use less–i.e. clothes washersBan planting of Midwestern plants in desert statesMore efficient irrigation methods (currently only 37% of water gets to the plants)
90 Recycling must be part of the solution – it can reduce some of the pollution resulting from improper disposal of products and industrial wastes.
91 Alternatives to Landfills It is getting increasingly difficult to find acceptable sites for the elimination of solid wastes in landfillsMaximizing the use of reusable components of solid wasteReduce quantity of solid waste to be disposed ofLandfills would take longer to reach capacity.Reduce the NIMBY reaction
92 “Wealth from Waste” – “Urban Ore” Metal Recovery—copper, steel, aluminumSome plastics can be recycled several timesGlass – melted and reusedAuto tires – ground up & used to surface roadsCombustibles (paper etc.) – burn in electric generating plants (reduce amt. of coal used)Garbage (organics): methane & man-made oil (very $ now)Recycle feces – sludge from sewage treatment plants can produce methane and be dried, sanitized, pulverized, and deodorized and sold as fertilizer – e.g. Milorganite
93 Recovery exampleElectric utility in the northeast required to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from its smokestacksComplied under protest of excessive expense that would drive the utility out of businessSulfur recovered by the “scrubbers” was sold to a nearby chemical company and that sale helped pay the costs of cleaning up the emissionsReduced the need for mined sulfur somewhatProduced cleaner air and contributed to better lung health in downwind areas & less acid rainAll of the clean-up costs were not passed on to consumers & the company survived
94 What consumers can do Products made from or using recycled materials Energy efficient appliances – they may save you more money than their initial higher cost.Think about a gas efficient automobile or a “hybrid” – in 2001, Toyota and Honda started selling them.
95 What Industry Can Do --Research ways to get greater efficiency in production and in products’ use of energyExample: Saturn automobile introduced in 1991Polymer door and quarter panelsNo dings or rust holes & uses less steel (substitution)Less weight allows for smaller gas-efficient engineUsed recycled materials in some partsNumerous parts could be recycled, including polymer panelsUsed environmentally friendly paint & painting processLongevity features – steel timing chain & instantly available oil filter feature (should extend engine life and efficiency)