Presentation on theme: "DESIGNING FOR FIRE SAFETY PARTS 1,2,3 and 4"— Presentation transcript:
1 DESIGNING FOR FIRE SAFETY PARTS 1,2,3 and 4 “A re-visit to the interpretations and applicationsof the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984”And revisions to Fire Safety Provisions Selangor Uniform Building (amendment)(no2) By-Laws 2012Ar Chong Lee SiongAPAM MIFireE MMIArbsPAM CPD SEMINAR
2 “PRESCRIPTIVE” BUILDING CODE Uniform Building By-Laws 1984is a“PRESCRIPTIVE” BUILDING CODECompliance with this code is a requirement by lawSets rules and regulations on the application of the codeProvides pre-determined prescriptionsThe prescriptions are absolute :no smaller than……..no bigger than……..no shorter than……no longer than……orno less than and no more than.
3 CONCEPTS OF FIRE SAFETY 1 EVACUATION2 PASSIVE CONTAINMENT3 ACTIVE INTERVENTION4 ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING AND RESCUE
4 occupants Numbers and distribution State of mind Familiarity of place Contributing factors to designing for evacuationoccupantsNumbers and distributionState of mindFamiliarity of placePhysical mobility
5 These factors lead to the designation of purpose groups in the Contributing factors to designing for evacuationbuildingsDetection and alarmComplexity of planPassive and active systemsThese factors lead to thedesignation of purpose groups in theFifth Schedule, UBBL
6 Designation of purpose group UBBL 5th scheduleUBBL 134UBBL 135, 136, 137, 138, 139Every building is to have one overall designationIndividual components of building with different usage from overall must be designed to accommodate the more stringent requirement, and where these requirements ‘spill’ into the other parts of the building, the more stringent requirement applies.Only ‘horizontal’ separation is allowed between buildings of different purpose groups
7 PURPOSE GROUPI : Small ResidentialII : InstitutionalIII : Other ResidentialV : ShopVII : Place of Assembly
8 MIXED USE BUILDINGS BASIC CONCEPT A- HOTEL B-SHOPS C-CARPARKS part of buildinguse/purpose grp : hotel/iiiHT. 1 to be used for compliancewith Schedules 6,7,9,10 of By-law.A- HOTELpart B of buildinguse/purpose grp : SHOPS/VHT. 2 to be used for compliancewith Schedules 6,7,9,10 of By-law.HT. 1B-SHOPSVertical compartment wallseparating Purpose Groups III & V -By-Law 215HT. 2b- shopsGround levelGround levelCompartment floorabove basementBy-Law 138(d)C-CARPARKSpart C of buildinguse/purpose grp :basement parking/viiidepth/ht. 3 to be used for compliancewith Schedules 7,9,10 of By-law.Depth 3c - basement
9 EVACUATION Detection Alarm Exits Travel distance Components Capacity of exitsAccepted assumption in designing for safe evacuation:“Only one fire at one location at a time”
10 NATURE OF FIRE Flashover Temperature / size Untenable condition Time Stage 1Ignition & growthStage 2developmentStage 3Full fireStage 4Decay
11 RSET < 0.75 ASET Available Safe Egress Time ASET Temperature / size ignitionUntenable conditionAvailable Safe Egress Time ASETdetectionTemperature / sizeTotalevacuationalarmmovementTimeFactor of safety:RSET < 0.75 ASETRequired Safe Egress Time RSET
13 Final exit UBBL 133 – interpretations Final exit refers to the threshold that separates “still within the building” and “out of the building”. The liability of the design for evacuation from the building ends at this point.
14 ‘Alternative exits’ UBBL 166 This is the primary concept for safe evacuation. Every floor space shall be provided with at least two exits on the basis that if one exit is inoperable, the other exit can serve the function.This ‘designing for redundancy’ principle applies to all aspects of evacuation.
15 Alternative exitsFinal exitAlternative exitsFinalexitFinalexit
16 Horizontal exitUBBL 171Exits that lead to an adjacent (horizontal) separated compartment within the same floor
17 Storey exitUBBL 167, 174Exits from a floor which is of a different level from the final exit, or, if on the same level, a distance away from the final exit.A storey exit is to lead to a final exit.
18 Exit route UBBL 133 – interpretations UBBL 169 the protected passage from a storey exit that leads to the final exit.Can include spaces that are designated as areas of refuge anywhere between the storey exit and the final exit
20 Travel distance UBBL 165 7th Schedule Dead end Direct distance initial travel distance before a point where an alternative path becomes availableDirect distanceStipulates that travel distance must be measured along the actual path of travelOpen planWhere an actual path of travel cannot be determined, the direct distance can be measured as a straight line direct to the exit. Permitted travel distance is then reduced to 2/3.
23 Evacuation : multiple areas UBBL 165 (B)Max 15m if room< 6 paxFinal exitsTo comply with dead endand travel distanceMax distance is 15m within roomplus max allowable travel distanceFrom door of room to final exitEvacuation : multiple areas
24 165. Measurement of travel distance to exits. (3) In the case of individual rooms which are subject to occupancy of not more than six persons, the travel distance shall be measured from the doors of such rooms:Provided that the travel distance from any point in the room to the room door does not exceed 15 metres.(3) In any of individual room which is subjected to occupancy of not more than six persons, the travel distance shall be measured from the door of such room:Provided that the area of the room does not exceed 15 square metres or any other area determined by the Fire Authority.To clarify that this requirement is applicable to each individual room.Measurement based on floor area of a room provides stricter control.
25 Evacuation : multiple areas Final exitsUBBL 165 (B)Max 15m2 and< 6 paxTravel distance measured from door if room is less than 15m2 and with less than 6 occupantsEvacuation : multiple areas
26 Evacuation : multiple areas Horizontalexitsstorey exitsEvacuation : multiple areas
30 Exit door, exit discharge UBBL 173UBBL 186UBBL 193UBBL interpretations‘Door’ refers to the physical door installed at an exit, and all its functional components e.g. locksets, latches, hinges and closers‘discharge’ refers to the ‘doorway’ or threshold of an exit
31 Exit door, exit discharge Not all fire rated doors are exit doorsNot all exit doors need to be fire doorsNot all doors need to be exit doorsNot all doors can be exit doorsExit doors must always be able to be opened (without undue effort) at all timesExit discharge must always allow the passage of people at all times‘Exit’ in this context means storey exit, horizontal exit or final exit
32 Evacuation : separation of routes Final exitFinal exitEvacuation : separation of routes
33 Protected corridor, protected staircase UBBL 133-interpretationsUBBL 157, 189, 190, 191While not expressed, it is inferred from the UBBL that all components that form the Exit Route shall be of protected construction.Using the same inference, ‘protected’ shall mean ‘enclosed’, ‘separated’ or ‘isolated’
34 Single stairUBBL 194Special provision for the common ‘shop-house’ designUsage limited to shop (ground floor only), residential or office.Uppermost floor level limited to 12m
35 SINGLE STAIRCASE PROVISION 12m max. UBBL 194Domestic or office useHeight oftopmost floor < 12mShop or car parkAssumed Room of occupancy < 6DiagramHeight of topmost floor of building with single staircase12mmax.not more 12m12mmax.DiagramMaximum travel distanceBy-Law 194 stipulates when a single staircase may be permitted. Essentially, this is only allowed where the occupancy above ground level is confined to either domestic or office purposes. The ground floor may be used for shops or car parks. (shop offices, shop houses)All elements of structure shall have a FRP of not less than one hour except the enclosure for the staircase at the ground floor where the wall shall have an FRP of not less than two hours, assuming the ground floor will not be used for residential purposes.
36 194. Building with single staircase. A single staircase may be permitted in the following premises:any dwellings at a height of 12 metres measured from the fire appliance access level to the highest and lowest floor; andany shophouses or dwellings not exceeding two (2) storeys or the first storey not exceeding 6 metres from the ground level.
37 Clause 194 (b) : single staircase for shop house officeHouseonly<=12m<= 6mShop1) House only on upper floor2) No more than 2 storeys3) Height of first floor no more than 6m above ground levelClause 166 and 167 (not less than two exits) shall applyfor other building types
38 Capacity of exits UBBL 7th Schedule UBBL 175, 176, 178 Occupant load Exit widthApplication of horizontal exit
39 Sample calculationScenario 1: upper floor assembly area in an institutional buildingStair AStair B50mOccupancy load(UBBL 180(b)) =1.35m2/pax1000m2 / 1.35m2 = personsAssume lobby C is inaccessible,Therefore A and B must accommodate total occupancy741 / 2 stairs = persons per stairVII persons per unit for stair = 75371 / 75 = , say 55 x 0.55m = m width each stair20mC = horizontal exit, persons per unit = 100371 pax / 100 = 3.71,3.71 x 0.55m = m min width for lobby CLobby C
40 D = horizontal exit = 100 pax per unit 222 persons 519 persons Sample calculationScenario 2: upper floor assembly area in an institutional buildingStair AStair B15m35mAssume C inaccessible, either B or DMust accommodate519 / 2 exits = personsB = stair = 75 pax per unit260/ 75 = 3.473.47 x 0.55m = m widthD = horizontal exit = 100 pax per unit260/ 100 = 2.62.6 x 0.55m = m width222 persons persons20m222 personsdoor DLobby C
42 7th Schedule : Maximum Travel Distance 9UBBL 1984 provisions shown in RED10604522.5NR NR NRNRNRNR
43 7th Schedule : Occupant Load and capacity of exits UBBL 1984 provisions shown in RED22------OFFICE------SHOP
44 Compartmentation Size limitations of ‘compartments’ Fire Resistance Ratings of ‘elements of structure’
45 Compartmentation To contain the spread of fire from point of origin To limit the potential size of the fireTo separate areas of different levels of hazardTo separate areas for safe exit, evacuation or refugeTo limit threat to the structural integrity of the buildingTo allow sufficient time for safe evacuation, active extinguishment of fire and rescue.
46 compartmentation Fire Load Surface area / volume of combustible content (A)Combustion heat per area / volume (B)Fire Load = (A) x (B)
47 NATURE OF FIRE Flashover Temperature / size Untenable condition Time Stage 1Ignition & growthStage 2developmentStage 3Full fireStage 4Decay
48 EQUAL VOLUME Temperature / size Time ‘high’ Btu ‘moderate’ Btu ‘low’ BtuTime
49 EQUAL Btu Temperature / size Time ‘high’ volume ‘moderate’ volume ‘low’ volumeTime
50 EQUAL VOLUME EQUAL Btu Purpose Group classification Prescription of TimeTemperature / sizeEQUAL VOLUME‘low’ Btu‘moderate’ Btu‘high’ BtuTimeTemperature / sizeEQUAL Btu‘low’ volume‘moderate’ volume‘high’ volumePurpose Group classificationPrescription ofFire Resistance RatingLimitation ofFloor Areas and Volume
51 “To contain the one fire within the one location at all times” Accepted assumption in designing for safe evacuation:“Only one fire at one location at a time”Primary objective of compartmentation:“To contain the one fire withinthe one location at all times”
52 Contents of the building Contributing factors to potential fire load :Contents of the buildingFittings and furnishings………..……………..including the building itselfFurniture and equipmentConsumablesStorage itemsPresence of hazardous materialsPresence (or absence) of human occupants
53 6th Schedule 8th Schedule 9th Schedule 5th Schedule, UBBL, ……. These factors lead to thedesignation of purpose groups in the5th Schedule, UBBL, …….……and to the prescriptions of UBBL6th Schedule8th Schedule9th Schedule
54 UBBL 5th Schedule UBBL 5th schedule UBBL 134 Every building is to have one overall designationIndividual components of building with different usage from overall must be designed to accommodate the more stringent requirement, and where these requirements ‘spill’ into the other parts of the building, the more stringent requirement applies.Only ‘horizontal’ separation is allowed between buildings of different purpose groups
55 UBBL 5th Schedule Dimensions of buildings and compartments Single storey buildings : limitations apply only to II and IIIOthers : dimensional limitations does not apply to I, IV and VII
56 other limitations that may affect areas and volumes UBBL136, 220 : if automatic sprinklers installed, limits can be doubled ( x 2 )137 : floor to floor compartmentation138 : floor and wall compartmentation for flats, basement and areas of different usage139 : compartmentation of hazardous areas
57 other limitations that may affect areas and volumes 158, 178 to 188 : specific coverage for VII – places of assemblyTravel distances and occupant loads
58 UBBL 6th ScheduleUBBL 142, 145 Construction and protection of external walls
59 UBBL 8th Schedule UBBL 204 to 207 Flame spread over surfaces of walls and ceilings
60 UBBL 9th ScheduleMinimum periods of Fire Resistance for Elements of Structure.UBBL 213 : every element of structure to have FRP no less than as specified in 9th Schedule
61 Elements of structure for application of FRP Structural frame, beams and columns (excluding roof structures)Floor (except the lowest floor)Compartment floorExternal wallSeparating wall ( including party wall )Compartment wallProtected shaft : structure and enclosureLoad bearing wallgallery
62 SEPARATING WALL : TERRACE HOUSES Constructional function : Party Wall UBBL 86Fire safety function : Separating wall to be Compartment Wall UBBL 138(c)Check compartment sizeCheck Fire Resistance Period of elements of structureUBBL 214 : External Wall and Separating Wall minimum FRP
63 86Party walls.(1) All party walls shall generally be of not less than 200 millimetres total thickness of solid masonry or insitu concrete which may be made up of two separate skins each of not less than 100 millimetres thickness if consctructed at different times:Provided that in multi-storeyed flats and terrace houses of reinforced concrete or of protected steel framed construction having floors and roofs constructed to the requirements of these By-laws, the party wall thereof shall not be less than 100 millimetres total thickness.(2) Party walls in single storeyed houses may be in load-bearing 100 millimetres solid masonry or insitu concrete provided the requirements of Part V, VI and VII of these By-laws are complied with. (3) All party walls shall be carried above the upper surface of the roof to a distance of not less than 230 millimetres at right angles to such upper surface. (4) Other non-combustible materials may be used for party walls provided the requirements of Part V, VI and VII of these By-laws are complied with.-Deleted-By-law 141: Separating walls has already provided the necessary fire requirements served to prevent the spread of fire from one separate unit of house to another. As such the Fire Authority will only make reference to by-law 141.
64 COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRP 138(c) : floor and walls separating purpose groupServiceapts215(1) : reference to elements of structure,by building, or by compartments215(2) : reference to height, by building only138(d) : floor separating basements: floor to floor compartment for buildings> 30m heightOffices138(b) : floor and walls separating flatsCineplexShopsCarpark
65 COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRP Basement compartment volume limit 42,000m3Separation of vertical ‘shaft’Compartment DCompartment ACompartment BCompartment C
66 At least 60% area are shops COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRPLarge Shopping Malls (Sarawak Building Ordinance)Shop compartment limit 4,000m2 14,000m3 (sprinklered )Compartment BNo limits ifAt least 60% area are shopsLess than 280m2 eachCompartment ACompartment C
69 (IV –Office) Sample calculation 2h x 3w Establish Purpose Group Establish height and width of enclosing rectangle3h x 9w9mEnclosing rectangle on reference plane :24m high x 9m wide = 216m2Total unprotected area :( 2m x 3m) x 10 = 60m23m x 9m = 27m2total = 87m23) Percentage of unprotected area :87m2 / 216m2 = 40 %4) Minimum distance from reference planeto relevant boundary : m(IV –Office)24mOffice buildingProtected staircase
73 COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRP Atrium Space (NFPA 101)
74 137 Compartmentation by height. Floor in building exceeding 30 metres in height to be constructed as compartment floor.In any building which exceeds 30 metres in height, any floor which is more than 9 metres above ground floor level which separates one storey from another storey, other than a floor which is either within a maisonette or a mezzanine floor shall be constructed as a compartment floor.-None-Compartmentation by height.(1) In any building not exceeding 30 metres in height, any floor which is more than 9 metres above ground floor level which separates one storey from another storey, other than a floor which is either within a maisonette or a mezzanine floor shall be constructed as a compartment floor.(2) In any building exceeding 30 metres in height, all floors shall be constructed as compartment floors, other than a compartment which is within a residential maisonette which may comprise two storey levels.(3) An atrium shall comply with the requirements of by-law 252A.To provide stricter requirements in relation to the extent of subdivision of a building as compartment floors.
75 Required exits to be separated from atrium volume COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRPAtrium Space (NFPA 101)Minimum dimension of 6m and minimum area of 95mRequired exits to be separated from atrium volumeAtrium construction and usage to be of hazard level no higher than ‘ordinary’Entire building to have automatic sprinklersDesigned for smoke exhaust and smoke controlAtrium volume to be separated from adjacent occupancy, or to be engineered such that the adjacent occupancies are not at risk from a fire originating from the atrium
76 COMPARTMENTS, ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE AND FRP Atrium Space (NFPA 101)UBBL 251Smoke venting forSafe exit
79 Protection of penetrations through compartments and elements UBBL 141 : Separating wallsDiameter of combustible pipe < 25mmDiameter of non-combustible pipe <150mmNo flue pipes allowedDoors to have equal or greater FRP as with the elementUBBL 148 : Compartment floor and wallsOpening for protected shaftVentilation duct with fire damperEncased ducts to have FRP no less than half of the element
80 Protection of penetrations through compartments and elements UBBL 150 : Protected Shaftsfor pipes, ducts, sanitary facilities, staircase, liftUBBL 156 : Ventilating Duct in Protected ShaftTo have automatic Fire Dampers at ‘appropriate’ intervals
81 Required FRP Half of required FRP Required FRP Max 25mm (/)
87 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
88 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
89 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
90 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
91 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
92 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
93 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
94 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
95 Hose Reel SystemSprinkler SystemGaseous Extinquishing SystemPressurized Fire HydrantManual Electric Fire AlarmAutomatic Fire Detector SystemCentralised Monitoring SystemPublic Address SystemFire Command Center
96 OPEN STRUCTURETotal surface area of openings is to be no less than 40% of the total perimeter wall area enclosing the floor or compartmentThe opening is to be shaped and located in such a way that total length in plan of the opening(s) is to be no less than 50% of the perimeter of the floor or compartment“ Openings” is to be opened to outside, unenclosed space or permitted airwells. Any individual opening having a surface area less than 600mm2 or area width of opening is less than 25mm is not to be regarded as an opening for this purpose.
97 Example:Total perimeter length (25m + 50m ) x 2 = 150mminimum 50% = mTotal perimeter wall area 150m x 5m = 750m2minimum 40% = 300m2OPEN STRUCTURES5m50m25mTotal length of openings (25m + 50m)x2 = 150mTotal area of openings : 150m x 2m = 300m2Total length of openings : 25m + 50m = 75mTotal area of openings : 75m x 4m = 300m2Total length of openings : 50m + 50m = 100mTotal area of openings : 100m x 3m = 300m2
98 OPEN CORRIDORTotal surface area of opening(s) is to be no less than 25% of the total perimeter wall area enclosing the balcony (corridor)The opening(s) is to be shaped and located in such a way that total length in plan of the opening(s) is to be no less than 50% of the perimeter of the floor or compartment“ Openings” is to be opened to outside, unenclosed space or permitted airwells. Any individual opening having a surface area less than 600mm2 or area width of opening is less than 25mm is not to be regarded as an opening for this purpose.
99 Example (corridor)Total perimeter length (24m + 2m ) x 2 = 52mminimum 50% = 26mTotal perimeter wall area 52m x 3m = 156m2minimum 25% = 39m2OPEN CORRIDOR6m6m6m6m3m3m2mPermitted Airwells(UBBL 40)Total length of openings 24m + 2m + 2m= 28mTotal area of openings : 28m x 1.5m = 42m2
107 FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM System objective are:To detect outbreak of fire and warn occupantsTo activate fire safety systemsTo inform Fire BrigadeTo monitor fire safety equipment
108 RELEVANT BY-LAWSUnder UBBL 237, fire alarm systems are required for buildings defined under the 10th ScheduleUnder UBBL 238, a fire command center is required for all buildings above 30.5 meters or exceeding 9,290 sq. meters in gross area.
109 LOCATION AND SPACINGManual call points and bells to be along escape corridors or beside exit and staircase doors, such that no occupant need travel more than 30 meters to reach a call point.
110 MAIN FIRE ALARM PANEL Main fire alarm panel comprises: Alarm, fault and isolation indication for each zone.Indicator lights to monitor status of power supply and fire safety systems such as fire pumps, smoke control equipment, carbon dioxide systems, fire tank water levels, etc.Mimic panel to identify location of each zone.Battery with charger to provide power supply for the whole system.
111 FIRE DETECTION DEVICES Manual break glass for occupants to activate manually.Heat detectors to detect heat intensive fires automatically for spaces up to 9 meters high.Smoke detectors to detect smoke intensive fires automatically for spaces up to 10 meters high.Beam (smoke) detectors for high spaces such as atriums up to 25 meters high.Flame (IR or UV) detectors
112 Heat …..or Smoke?Smoke detectors for electrical rooms and store rooms.Heat detectors for general areas.Smoke detectors for areas where rapid heat development is normal for the function of the space, or where combustibles may burn with high release of smokeHeat detectors for areas where smoke may be a common presence in the space, or where combustibles may burn rapidly and efficiently
113 VOICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS To guide the occupants in an orderly manner during evacuation upon detection of fire.For the firemen to communicate with one another during fire fighting operations.
114 RELEVANT BY-LAWUnder UBBL 239, two voice communication system is required for all large buildings and high rise buildings and they are:Public address system, andFire brigade intercommunication system
115 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Intended for use by the occupants during the early stages of the fireUnder UBBL 227, portable fire extinguishers are required for first aid use.
116 CLASSES OF FIRES Class A: Combustible solids like paper, wood Class B: Inflammable Liquids like kerosene, dieselClass C: Flammable gasesClass D: Reactive metals like sodium, potassium,Class E: Ignition of an electrical natureClass F: Cooking oil fires
117 TYPES OF EXTINGUISHERS Water type for Class A firesDry powder type for Class A, B, C and F firesCarbon Dioxide type for Class E firesFoam type for Class B firesDry powder type of 6 kg for general use.Carbon Dioxide type for electrical rooms
118 Active Fire Safety Systems 4/20/2017LOCATION AND SPACINGBeside exit and staircase doorsGenerally located within 20 meters of any potential hazardchong lee siong
119 Active systems for….. COMPARTMENTATION and FIRE FIGHTING Smoke Control ExtinquishmentManualAutomatic
120 SMOKE CONTROLTYPESPressurization system to prevent entry of smoke by pressurizing the compartment with air.Space depressurization system to prevent the spread of smoke by extraction.Smoke dilution system to remove the smoke by extraction and make-up of air.
121 PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS Typical application are in protected shafts and corridors.Air is actively supplied into the compartment to be protected to maintain a positive pressure relative to the adjacent compartments.
123 DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS Typical application are multi-storey office buildings.Floor on fire is maintained under negative pressure by extracting the smoke laden air.Immediate floors above and below are maintained at positive pressure by supplying air to these floors.
130 SPRINKLER SYSTEMIntended to detect and extinguish a fire and warn the occupants to evacuate.Under UBBL 226, automatic sprinkler systems are required for storage and other types of occupancies where automatic extinguishing system is necessary.
132 TYPES OF SYSTEMSWet pipe system where pipe work is charged with water at all times.Dry pipe system where pipe is charged with water only after the sprinkler head is activated.Pre-action system where system is charged with water after fire is detected but before the sprinkler head is activated.Deluge system where water is discharged simultaneously from all sprinkler heads upon activation.
133 TYPES OF HAZARDS Light Hazard e.g. apartments, schools Ordinary Hazards:OH Group I : Offices, restaurantsOH Group II : Laundries, bakeriesOH Group III : Departmental Stores, Car parksOH Group IV : Film and television studiosHigh Hazards:Process risksHigh piled storage risks
134 SPRINKLER TANKSTypical location at ground or first basement although no restriction on the location except for distance from pump.
135 AREAS EXEMPTED Transformer Rooms; Switch gear Rooms; Lift Motor Rooms; andToilets;
136 INSTALLATION CONTROL VALVE Water supply to sprinklers feed from Installation control valve with alarm gong and shut-off valves.For life safety systems, Sprinklers are grouped such that each zone does not have more than 200 sprinkler heads with its own flow switch.
137 SPRINKLER PIPE WORKThe height between the lowest and highest sprinkler within one stage not to exceed 45 m.For buildings exceeding 45 m., multiple stages are required.Express risers are permitted to bypass lower stgages and serve the upper stage.
138 AUTOMATIC ACTIVATIONHeat and smoke detectors installed to detect fire.Activation of one detector initiates alarm but not gas discharge.Activation of any two detectors initiates gas discharge.Time delay of 30 sec. before gas discharge.
139 MANUAL ACTIVATIONManual activation by pull station in event of failure of automatic activation.Pull station to be outside of room protected.Audio and visual warning activated upon gas discharge to warn occupants from entering.
140 Active systems for…..FIRE FIGHTING and RESCUELiftsRisersHydrants
141 FIRE LIFTIntended to assist the firemen to reach the floors on fire rapidly.Under UBBL 243, any building exceeding 18.5 meters high shall be provided with firemen’s lift.
142 LOCATION AND SPACINGNot more than 61 meters from the furthermost point of the floor.Not more than 61 meters from the main entrance of the building or the fire control room whichever is nearer.
143 DESIGN REQUIREMENTSLift capacity to be able to carry 550kg. min.Lift car platform size to be not less than 1.45 sq. meters.Lift car door to be min. 800 mm clear in width.Lift to serve all occupied floors.
144 FIRE MODE OF OPERATIONLift to be provided with emergency power for operation during power failure.Lift to return to main landing upon detection of power failure and remain inoperable until firemen arrive.Fire switch to be provided at main landing for firemen to activate the lift for their use.
145 Intended for the firemen to pump water up to the floors on fire. DRY RISER SYSTEMSIntended for the firemen to pump water up to the floors on fire.Under UBBL 230, dry risers required for all buildings with topmost floor above 18.3 meters from fire appliance access level
147 LOCATION AND SPACINGLanding valves located within fire access lobbies.Provided on every upper floor such that all spaces are within 45 m from a landing valve.Breeching inlet to be no more than 18 m. from fire appliance access road and not more than 30 meters from nearest outdoor hydrant.
148 DRY RISER PIPE WORKDry riser to be 100 mm dia. If highest outlet is no more than 23 m. above breeching inlet.Dry riser to be 150 mm dia. If highest outlet is more than 23 m. above breeching inlet.
149 5. WET RISER SYSTEMSIntended to supply water up to the floors on fire for the firemen to use.Under UBBL 231, wet risers required for all buildings with topmost floor above 30.5m. From the fire appliance access level.
150 LOCATION AND SPACINGLanding valves located within fire access lobbies.Provided on every upper floor such that all spaces are within 45 m from a landing valve.Distance between landing valves on the same floor not to exceed 60 m.Breeching inlet to be no more than 18 m. from fire appliance access road and not more than 30 meters from nearest outdoor hydrant.
152 PUMPS AND PIPE WORKEach stack not to exceed 60 m or 71 m if approved by the Director General of Fire and Rescue Dept.Stack height is defined as the height from the wet riser pump to the topmost floor protected.
153 WET RISER PUMPS AND TANKS Location of wet riser pumps and tanks restricted to ground, first or second basement.Lowest basement may not be premitted due to possibility of flooding.
154 6. DOWNCOMER SYSTEMSIntended to provide water from roof fire tank to the floors on fire using static head available.Only permitted for private residential buildings where the topmost floor is no higher than 60 m. above fire appliance access level.
156 LOCATION AND SPACING Landing valves located within fire access lobbies Provided on every upper floor such that all spaces are within 45 m from a landing valve.Breeching inlet to be no more than 18 m. from fire appliance access road and not more than 30 meters from nearest outdoor hydrant.
157 DOWNCOMER TANKSTanks located on roof of building for maximum pressure.
158 Protection of stairs and lobbies UBBL196, smoke lobbies, protected lobbies198, 199, 200, 201 – ventilation of stairs229 – fire fighting lobbies
159 Protection of stairs and lobbies Protected Lobby : protected lobby separated or isolated from fire and smoke infiltrationSmoke Lobby : a protected lobby primarily to isolate staircases from smoke infiltrationventilated lobby : protected/smoke lobby by means of natural ventilation from outsideFire Fighting Access Lobby : a protected lobby designed for fire fighting access
160 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMSTo control the spread of smoke from the source of fire to other occupied spaces and maintain visibility as much as possible during evacuation.
161 RELEVANT BY-LAWSUnder UBBL clauses 196 and 197 requires fire fighting access lobbies and smoke lobbies to be pressurized if natural ventilation cannot be provided.Under UBBL clauses 200, 201 and 202 requires escape staircases to be pressurized if natural ventilation cannot be provided.
162 STAIRCASE PRESSURIZATION Entire staircase pressurized with air.Air pressure within staircase is controlled to permit opening of exit doors without the need of excessive force.
163 LIFT LOBBY PRESSURIZATION Lift lobbies are individually pressurized with air.Air pressure within lift lobbies is controlled to permit opening of exit doors without the need of excessive force.
164 Protected lobby requirement for building > 18m Ventilation openingExternal wallNo protectedlobby requiredProtected lobby requirement for building > 18m(By-Law 197)ProtectedlobbyrequirementBuilding more than 18m above ground level
165 Staircase pressurised Omission of protected lobby Ventilated openingOmission of protected lobbyfor pressurised staircase for buildings below 45mNo protectedlobby requiredStaircasepressurisedFor building above18m but below 45mNo protectedlobby required
166 Above 18m, need PROTECTION Above 45m, protection by PRESSURISATION Ventilation openingProtected lobby requirement for building > 45m[By-Law 197(2)]No protectedlobby requiredProtectedlobby to bepressurisedAbove 18m, need PROTECTIONAbove 45m, protection byPRESSURISATION
169 EXTERNAL FIRE HYDRANTS System of Pipe work connected to public water mains to provide water for the pumps in the fire engine.For industrial plants, fire pumps have to be provided where flow is unreliable or pressure is inadequate
170 RELEVANT BY-LAWSUnder UBBL 225, every building shall be provided with at least one fire hydrant.
171 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY Intended to provide emergency power to operate all fire safety systems.Under UBBL 253, emergency power is to be provided for fire pumps, fire lifts, fire alarm, smoke control, emergency lighting, voice communication, firemen intercom, etc.
172 SOURCES OF EMERGENCY POWER Standby electrical generator with changeover switch activated upon power failure;Battery banks with charger to maintain them in charged condition.
173 LOCATIONGenerator to be located at ground or first basement for easy access by firemen.Outdoor air required to cool diesel engine’s radiator.
175 197B. Fire fighting access lobbies. 197A. Means of access and fire fighting in building over 18.0 metres high.(1) Buildings in which the topmost floor is more than 18.0 metres above fire appliance access level shall be provided with means of gaining access and fighting fire from within the building consisting of fire fighting access lobbies, fire fighting staircases, fire lifts and dry or wet rising systems.197B. Fire fighting access lobbies.Fire fighting access lobbies shall conform to the following requirements:(a) each lobby shall have a floor area of not less than 6.0 square metres; and(b) the openable area of windows or area of permanent ventilation shall be not less than 25% of the floor area of the lobby and, if ventilation is by means of openable windows, additional permanent ventilation having a free opening of 464 square centimetres shall be provided except that mechanical pressurisation may be provided as an alternative
176 FIRE APPLIANCE ACCESS UBBL 140 ACCESS WAY An area for the entry, maneuvering and parking of Fire Appliances during fire fighting and rescue operationsACCESS ROADA road capable of accommodating the passage of Fire Appliances to enter an Access WayACCESS OPENINGSDoorways or openings that allows fast and safe entry of Fire Fighting and Rescue personnel into a building during fire fighting and rescue operations
177 EXTERNAL ACCESSAccess for emergency and rescue vehicles, equipment and personnelRoadsPavementsParkingAvailability of water :HydrantsStorage tanksLakes, rivers, pondsAnd access to fire fighting systems in the premises
178 AT THE PREMISESClarity of :Type of building and functionConfiguration of buildingLocation of fire control panelLocation of breaching inlets and pump roomsAccess into the buildingProtected passageProtected stairsFiremen’s liftFire fighting lobby
185 Hydrant to Breeching Inlet Fire Fighting Access LobbiesMaximum 90mHydrant to HydrantBreeching InletsHydrantEmergency Power GeneratorsFire PumpsLALUAN JENTERA BOMBAKOSONGKAN LALUANMaximum 30mHydrant to Breeching Inlet
186 Ar Chong Lee Siong APAM MIFireE MMIArbs THANK YOUAr Chong Lee SiongAPAM MIFireE MMIArbs
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