Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

APA Chapter 3.  Organization  Consider the best length and structure of the information you want to share.  Strengthened the impact of your writing.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "APA Chapter 3.  Organization  Consider the best length and structure of the information you want to share.  Strengthened the impact of your writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Chapter 3

2  Organization  Consider the best length and structure of the information you want to share.  Strengthened the impact of your writing by ordering your thoughts logically, both at the paragraph and at the sentence level  Length  The optimal length is the amount of pages needed to effectively communicate the primary ideas of the paper.

3  Levels and headings establish the hierarchy of sections via format or appearance.  Use headings to effectively organize ideas within the paper as well as seriation to highlight important items within sections  Topics of equal importance have the same level of heading throughout the paper.  Avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection without headings

4  Continuity in Presentation of Ideas (continuity in works, concepts and thematic development. Using punctuation marks to show relationship between ideas, transitional words APA page 65)  Smoothness of Expression (Scientific prose and creative writing serve different purposes. Devices often found in creative writing are confusing for scientific prose readers)

5  Tone (Scientific writing contrasts the positions of different researches with professionalism)  Economy of Expression (Say only what needs to be said)  Wordiness impede the ready grasp of ideas –there were several students who completed -several students completed  Redundancy - they were both alike

6  Word Choice Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson –incorrect Articles by psychologists including Skinner and Watson -correct  Colloquial expressions -quite a large part  Jargon  Pronouns Are confusing unless the referent is obvious.

7  A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic.  Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing.  You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing).

8  If you begin to transition into a new idea, it belongs in a new paragraph.  You can have one idea and several bits of supporting evidence within a single paragraph.  You can also have several points in a single paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph.  If the single points start to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own paragraphs is the route to go.

9  Unity,  Coherence,  A Topic Sentence, and  Adequate Development

10  The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus.  If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.

11  Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader.  You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating  logical bridges, and  verbal bridges.

12  The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence  Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel form

13  Key words can be repeated in several sentences  Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences  Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences  Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences

14  A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with.  Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph.

15  The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately.  This varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.

16  Use examples and illustrations  Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others)  Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases)  Use an anecdote or story  Define terms in the paragraph  Compare and contrast

17  Evaluate causes and reasons  Examine effects and consequences  Analyze the topic  Describe the topic  Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)

18  Means that you expressed the author’s information or ideas in your own words and have given that person credit for that information or idea.  Changing a few words here and there is still considered plagiarism even if you do cite the author (APA Manual,6th ed., pp. 170-171

19  Plagiarism is the use of another person’s ideas or words without giving them the proper credit.  Plagiarism can occur when you use someone else’s exact words without giving them credit, taking credit for someone else’s ideas, or even presenting your own past work as a new idea.

Download ppt "APA Chapter 3.  Organization  Consider the best length and structure of the information you want to share.  Strengthened the impact of your writing."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google