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APA Chapter 3
Organization Consider the best length and structure of the information you want to share. Strengthened the impact of your writing by ordering your thoughts logically, both at the paragraph and at the sentence level Length The optimal length is the amount of pages needed to effectively communicate the primary ideas of the paper.
Levels and headings establish the hierarchy of sections via format or appearance. Use headings to effectively organize ideas within the paper as well as seriation to highlight important items within sections Topics of equal importance have the same level of heading throughout the paper. Avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection without headings
Continuity in Presentation of Ideas (continuity in works, concepts and thematic development. Using punctuation marks to show relationship between ideas, transitional words APA page 65) Smoothness of Expression (Scientific prose and creative writing serve different purposes. Devices often found in creative writing are confusing for scientific prose readers)
Tone (Scientific writing contrasts the positions of different researches with professionalism) Economy of Expression (Say only what needs to be said) Wordiness impede the ready grasp of ideas –there were several students who completed -several students completed Redundancy - they were both alike
Word Choice Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson –incorrect Articles by psychologists including Skinner and Watson -correct Colloquial expressions -quite a large part Jargon Pronouns Are confusing unless the referent is obvious.
A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing).
If you begin to transition into a new idea, it belongs in a new paragraph. You can have one idea and several bits of supporting evidence within a single paragraph. You can also have several points in a single paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph. If the single points start to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own paragraphs is the route to go.
Unity, Coherence, A Topic Sentence, and Adequate Development
The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.
Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges, and verbal bridges.
The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel form
Key words can be repeated in several sentences Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences
A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph.
The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. This varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.
Use examples and illustrations Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others) Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases) Use an anecdote or story Define terms in the paragraph Compare and contrast
Evaluate causes and reasons Examine effects and consequences Analyze the topic Describe the topic Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)
Means that you expressed the author’s information or ideas in your own words and have given that person credit for that information or idea. Changing a few words here and there is still considered plagiarism even if you do cite the author (APA Manual,6th ed., pp. 170-171
Plagiarism is the use of another person’s ideas or words without giving them the proper credit. Plagiarism can occur when you use someone else’s exact words without giving them credit, taking credit for someone else’s ideas, or even presenting your own past work as a new idea.
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