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Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions

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Presentation on theme: "Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions
Structure and Style Grade 7

2 Lesson Objectives To practice sentence combining skills to achieve smooth and varied sentences. To recognize unity and coherence as features of effective paragraphs. To identify the three types of paragraphs. To identify the topic sentence or main idea in a paragraph. To write a topic sentence that serves as the basis for writing an effective topical paragraph. To recognize patterns of paragraph organization. To identify functional paragraphs and explain how they relate to the overall piece of writing. To divide a long paragraph into paragraph blocks. To analyze paragraph style in terms of sentence variety, diction, and tone.

3 Sentence Combining Inserting words and phrases.
Using compound subjects or verbs. Forming compound sentences by using conjunctions. Using subordination. A subordinate clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought.

4 Writing Effective Paragraphs
Most paragraphs have a main idea. Often, it is directly stated in the topic sentence. Sometimes, it is implied, meaning that it is not directly stated. Instead, the sentences communicate the main idea. They work together to present the main idea.

5 Writing the Topic Sentence
When you outline a topic or plan an essay, you identify the main points you want to address. Each of these points can be a topic sentence. You can organize the paragraph around the topic sentence. A good topic sentence tells readers what the paragraph is about and the point the writer wants to make about the subject matter.

6 Writing Supporting Sentences
The topic sentence can be stated or implied. The rest of the sentences in the paragraph will either develop, explain, or support that topic sentence. You can support or develop these sentences with the following strategies: Use facts – Facts are statements that can be proven true. Use statistics – These are facts but usually stated with numbers. Use examples, illustrations, or instances – This is a specific person, event or instance that demonstrates a point. Use details – They give information by showing how all the pieces fit together.

7 Placing Your Topic Sentence
Where does the topic sentence go? Frequently, the topic sentence goes at the beginning of a paragraph. However, they can be placed at the end of the paragraph. Place at the beginning, you focus your reader immediately. Place it in the middle, you can lead into your main idea. Place it at the end and it will emphasize the main idea before the reader goes on. Paragraph patterns, page 36/ Student book.

8 Paragraphs in Essays Unity and Coherence- In a paragraph that has unity, all the sentences relate to the main idea. They either develop, support, or explain the main idea. To achieve unity in your paragraphs, refer to the topic sentence. Be sure that each point is related to the topic. When you revise a paragraph, delete any sentences that do not support, develop, or explain the main idea. Page 37. Example paragraph. Practice finding Unity with a partner, Exercise 10.

9 Paragraphs in Essays Coherence- A paragraph has coherence when the ideas are arranged in a logical order and the sentences are connected so that it is clear to a reader how ideas are related. The type of organization you choose depends on your topic and purpose. The sentences in a paragraph must lead logically to the next. Use transitional words and phrases to indicate the connections.

10 Types of Organization & Transitional Words
Chronological/ first, next, then, last, finally, before, after Spatial/through, next to, above, below, in front of ,behind Order of Importance/first, primarily, most important, also Cause and Effect/if, because, therefore, then, due to, so Practice coherence with a partner, Exercise 11, page 38.

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