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HEALTH EDUCATION & Promotion Concepts

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Presentation on theme: "HEALTH EDUCATION & Promotion Concepts"— Presentation transcript:

1 HEALTH EDUCATION & Promotion Concepts
Prof. AWATIF ALAM & Prof. ASHRY GAD Department of Family & Community Medicine KSU

2 Definition: “Health education is the process by which individuals and group of people learn to “: Promote, Maintain, Restore health Address risks, prevent disease/injury “Education for health begins with people as they are, with whatever interests they may have in improving their living conditions”.

A planned combination of educational, political, regulatory, and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, or communities. Keywords- planned, different supports, healthy environment Green & Kreuter, 1999

The process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health… A commitment to dealing with challenges of reducing inequities, extending the scope of prevention, and helping people to cope with their circumstances… Creating environments conducive to health, in which people are better able to take care of themselves Different settings- school, workplace, etc

Enabling people to take control over, and responsibility for, their health as an important component of everyday life. Requiring the close cooperation of sectors beyond the health services. Combining diverse, but complimentary, methods or approaches. Encouraging effective and concrete public participation. Media, newspapers, for a Participation from day 1

6 Health Promotion Action Means:
Build Public Health Policy Create Supportive Environments Strengthen Community Actions Develop Personal Skills Re-orient Health Services Moving into the future


8 The Health Promotion Triad
Health Education Health Protection Prevention


10 The Phases of Prevention in relation to natural history of disease
Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention Cure Chronic disease Healthy individual Biological onset of disease Clinical Course of disease Disability Death Functional Status Risk Factors Asymptomatic signs Symptoms and signs Predisposition/susceptibility Preclinical/presymptomatic Clinical/symptomatic Outcome- cure, permanent/temporary-partial disability/death Rehabilitation Support Immunization Health Education Prophylaxis Screening Surveillance Diagnosis Treatment Compliance Adherence The Phases of Prevention in relation to natural history of disease

11 Health Promotion Context: Place of Health Education in Public Health

THREE SPHERES Health Education Prevention Health Protection SEVEN DOMAINS Lifestyle Preventive Policies Policy Maker Education 5. Health Education 6. Health Protection 7. Policy Support

13 Health Promotion (Ottawa Charter)
Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health… …. health promotion is not just the responsibility of health sector, but goes beyond healthy life styles to well being Health Promotion concept recognizes the role of socio-political environment, public policies, health system and access to care, physical environment, culture, and health related attitudes and behaviors towards health and diseases. Health Education targets health related beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of individuals and populations. Therefore, while Health Education plays an important role there is a need to understand that a larger role is played by national policies, social context, cultural values, health system access

14 Health Promotion – Framework
Advocacy to make political, economic, social, environmental, cultural, behavioral & biological factors favorable to health. Enable people by ensuring equal opportunities associated text refers to ‘opportunities for access to information, life skills, and making health choices (HEALTH EDUCATION contributes to achieving this goal)’ -- [and this enables person to take action] Mediate a coordinated action by government, health, social and economic sectors, NGOs, Industry, professional & social groups

15 Health Promotion Actions
Healthy Public Policies -- for healthier goods & services, healthier environment, equal opportunities Creation of Supportive Environment Environment - Social, Physical Work, Community, Society levels Strengthening Community Actions Community participation, empowerment, action. Health Education also helps in empowering people for effective participation and taking part in actions which make positive changes to environment, health care services, policies

16 Health Promotion Actions (contd.)
Develop Personal Skills By education, information, training Reorient Health Services Health sector must move in a HP direction beyond clinical Respect cultural needs

17 Targets of health education: definitions
Health Behaviour: Activity undertaken for the purpose of prevention of diseases, or detecting these at an early stage, or managing them effectively Belief: A statement or body of statements held to be true by an individual or group. Attitude: Position, disposition, or manner with regard to a person or thing

1. To develop a sense of responsibility for health conditions, as individuals, as members of families & communities. (Promotion ,prevention of disease & early diagnosis and management ). While, as mentioned previously, environment, policy, social context plays a major role towards shaping the health attitudes and behaviors, information, knowledge and skills at personal level are also important to adopt healthy behaviors 2. To promote and wisely use the available health services. 3. To be part of all education, and to continue throughout whole span of life.

19 Process of health education:
Dissemination of scientific knowledge about how to promote and maintain health), lead to changes in the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (behavior) related to such changes.

20 Steps for adopting new ideas & practices :
AWARENESS (Know about new ideas) INTEREST (Seeks more details ) EVALUATION (Advantages versus disadvant.+ testing usefulness ) TRIAL (Decision put into practice) ADOPTION (person feels new idea is good and adopts it)

21 Contents of Health Education
RISK FACTORS: e.g. smoking, drugs, road traffic accident risks HEALTH ENHACING PRACTICES: e.g. exercise, nutrition OCCUPATIONAL FACTORS: Safety, Hygiene INFECTION CONTROL: e.g. hand washing CHRONIC ILLNESS, MENTAL HELATH: Knowledge about risks, improvement actions such as promoting togetherness SEXUAL HEALTH i.e. information about STI HEALTH SERVICES: Information about access, Awareness about the need to use the health services SPECIAL GROUPS (food handlers, occupations, mothers, school health)

22 Principles of Health Education
Interest Participation Motivation Comprehension Proceeding from the known to the unknown Reinforcement through repetition Good human relations People, facts and media: “knowledgeable, attractive , palatable & acceptable “.

23 Principles of Health Education
Learning by doing: “ If I hear, I forget If I see, I remember If I do, I know”. Motivation i.e. awakening the desire to know and learn: - Primary motives, e.g. inborn desires, hunger - Secondary motives, i.e. desires created by incentives such as praise, love, recognition, competition.

24 Health Education: Individuals
About For example, for Healthy behaviors (e.g. breast feeding), secondary prevention Settings where education is imparted Health care settings, Home, Video/Internet Approaches to health education for individuals Risk assessments in various settings Information, contract, evaluation for behavior change Methods for health education for individuals Information provision in-person, print/electronic media Issues High Cost, Focus on Disease rather than on health

25 Health Education: Groups
About Behavior change, supportive environment, community action, access to care Settings Health care settings, community, workplace Approaches Knowledge & skill development Peer learning Training for behavior change Methods Didactic & experiential methods Issues Difficult to comprehend and manage group dynamics, difficult to achieve skills to facilitate groups

26 Communication in health education:
Education is primarily a matter of communication, the components of which are: CHANNELS AUDIENCE MESSAGE COMMUNICATOR - Individual Conform with Educator - Media Group objectives. - 2 way Public understandable needs+ interest of audience - 1 way Public Acceptable ? Content of message

27 Evaluation of health education programs:
There should be continuous evaluation. Evaluation should not be left to the end but should be done from time to time for purpose of making modifications to achieve better results.

28 EVALUATION CYCLE: Describe problem Describe program State goals Determine needed information Modify program Establish basis for proof of effectiveness Analyze &compare Organize data Develop& test Determine data results base instruments collecting method


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