Presentation on theme: "What are the inner planets? The four planets closest to the sun are known as the inner planets. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars."— Presentation transcript:
What are the inner planets? The four planets closest to the sun are known as the inner planets. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Mercury This picture of Mercury was made by joining many smaller photos taken by Mariner 10. No photos were taken of the area that looks smooth.
Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun. It is a small planet, a little bigger than Earth’s moon. Mercury is covered with thousands of dents. The dents are shaped like bowls and are called craters. Craters were made when meteorites crashed into Mercury’s surface long ago.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is about the same size as Earth, but Venus turns in the opposite direction. Like Mercury, Venus is very hot and dry. Unlike Mercury, Venus has an atmosphere made of thick, swirling clouds.
Using the chart, What is one reason people cannot live on Mercury or Venus? They are both too hot to live on!
Using the chart, how much longer is Venus’ Earth year? 137 years longer
Earth, our home, is the third planet from the Sun. It is also the solar system’s largest rocky planet. Earth is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface. In fact, most of Earth’s surface is covered with water. Earth is the only planet in the solar system known to support life.
Moons are satellites of planets. A satellite is an object that orbits another object in space. Just as planets revolve around the Sun because of gravity, moons revolve around planets. Earth has one large moon. The diameter of the Moon is about one-fourth the diameter of Earth.
The fourth planet from the Sun is Mars. The rocks and soil that cover much of Mars contain the mineral iron oxide. This mineral is reddish-brown in color. It is the same material that makes up rust. This has given Mars its nickname, the "Red Planet."
How much lighter is a 100 pound person on Mars? 62 pounds
Why is the average surface temperature considerably lower on Mars compared to Earth It is farther from the sun.
Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, is a gas giant. A gas giant is a very large planet made mostly of gases. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. In fact, if it were hollow, it is so big that all of the other planets could fit inside it!
Jupiter has many moons. Galileo was the first person to see the four largest moons through his telescope in 1610. They are about the size of Earth's moon. One Example is Europa – This is the smoothest object in the solar system.
Jupiter’s atmosphere has a weather system called the Great Red Spot that has been raging for centuries. It is a disturbance more than three times the size of Earth.
The sixth planet from the Sun, Saturn is also a gas giant. Like Jupiter, Saturn’s atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium. The Voyager space probe explored Saturn’s rings. It showed that the particles that make up the rings range in size from tiny grains to boulders.
In 1781, William Herschel discovered a seventh planet orbiting the Sun. The gas giant Uranus is the farthest planet you can see without a telescope. Uranus is so cold that the methane is a liquid. Tiny drops of liquid methane form a thin cloud that covers the planet. This gives Uranus its fuzzy blue-green look.
Uranus rotates on its side. No one knows for sure why Uranus has this odd tilt. Scientists think that a very large object may have collided with the planet when the solar system was still forming. This bump may have knocked Uranus onto its side.
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun. It is the smallest of the gas giants. Even so, if Neptune were hollow, it could hold about 60 Earths. It is so far away that it can't be seen without a telescope. In 1846 astronomers discovered Neptune. A few days later they spotted Triton, Neptune's largest moon.
Galileo lived from 1564 to 1642. He was a mathematician and astronomer. He agreed with Copernicus that all planets revolve around the Sun. Galileo used a telescope to observe the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars.
When I saw Saturn through my telescope, I was surprised. I saw what looked like a planet with handles! The “handles” were actually the brilliant ring system that orbits the planet.
Until 2006, Pluto was considered a ninth planet. But Pluto is different from the eight planets in several ways. Now scientists refer to Pluto as a dwarf planet. A dwarf planet is a small, ball- shaped object that revolves around the Sun.
Quiz Time! Let’s see how you do locating the planet!
JupiterNeptune The farthest planet you can see without a telescope. Find the planet Uranus
Thank you for purchasing this product! If you like what you see, consider leaving feedback. Visit my Website to see more of my products! www.powerpointmaniac.com Are you on Facebook? If so, join Power Point Maniac’s Teaching Resources to get ideas, resources, and free stuff! www.facebook.com/powerpointmaniacWebsite www.powerpointmaniac.com www.facebook.com/powerpointmaniac