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The Policy Context for Black Carbon Emission Inventory and Abatement Cooperation Sara Terry United States Environmental Protection Agency
2 Short History of Black Carbon Current Status of Black Carbon in: –CLRTAP and the Gothenburg Protocol Amendments –Arctic Council and the Framework for Action on Black Carbon and Methane How BC Information Can Impact Policy Overview
3 BC Recognized as Climate Forcer since 1970s Included in IPCC Reports (initially as soot) since 1995 2009: Formation of the Arctic Black Carbon Initiative 2010- Formation of Arctic Council Arctic Contaminants Action Program (ACAP) Short-lived Climate Forcers and Contaminants Expert Group (formerly Project Steering Group) 2010: Report of the LRTAP Ad-hoc Expert Group on Black Carbon 2011: UNEP/WMO Integrated Assessment of BC and Tropospheric Ozone 2011 and 2013: Reports of the Arctic Council Task Force on Short Lived Climate Forcers 2012: Formation of Climate and Clean Air Coalition 2008-2015: AMAP Reports: –Sources and Mitigation Opportunities to Reduce Emissions of Short-term Arctic Climate Forcers (2008) –The Impact of Short-Lived Pollutants on Arctic Climate (2008) –AMAP 2009 Update on Selected Climate Issues of Concern –The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate (2011) –Arctic Climate Issues 2015: Short-lived Climate Pollutants 2015: Framework for Action by Arctic Council Task Force for Action on Black Carbon and Methane Short History of Black Carbon
1979 Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution First multilateral treaty on air pollution Commitments –Develop strategies to combat air pollution –Exchange information on policies, research, monitoring, etc. –Hold consultations on long range transboundary air pollution and its effects –Coordinate and cooperate on research into control technologies, monitoring, modeling, health and environmental effects, etc. Serves as a model for regional/global environmental treaties (e.g., POPs, mercury) 4
Coverage LRTAP (51 Parties) EE LV LT BY PL UA RO HU BG TR GR AZ GE AM KG FI CY SENO DK DE NL IE ES PT IT CH AT GB HR BA AL MK FR BE CZ MD SK SI YU L RU KZ TM UZ TJ U Artic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean CA US 5
1984 EMEP Protocol –Established permanent funding for monitoring and modeling program. 1985 Sulphur Protocol –Reduce 1980 annual sulphur emissions by at least 30 per cent 1988 NO x Protocol –Reduce and hold NOx emissions below 1987 levels by 1993 1991 VOC Protocol –Reduce 1984 annual VOC emissions by 30 percent by 1999 1994 Sulphur Protocol –Reduce emissions by 50 to 80 percent by 2000/2005 1998 Protocol/2012 Amendments on Heavy Metals –Cadmium, Lead and Mercury 1998 Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) –Pesticides, PCBs, Dioxins/Furans (16 compounds). 1999 Gothenburg Protocol/2012 Amendments to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone –SO x, NO x, VOCs, Ammonia (1999) –Particulate Matter (2012) The Protocols 6
LRTAP – Long Term Strategy Adopted in 2010 Sets out a vision for the Convention for the next 10 years Recognized the importance of identifying the co- benefits of combating air pollution and climate change Shorter-term attention is focused on SLCPs where there is a recognition that optimal control policies should be regional in nature Set the stage for the adoption of the 2012 Gothenburg Amendments 7
Gothenburg Protocol 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone: ‒ Contained emission ceilings and commitments to use best available technologies for NOx, SO 2, VOC and ammonia to further address transboundary impacts 2012 Amendments: ‒ Added Particulate Matter including Black Carbon ‒ Protocol includes giving a priority to reducing black carbon as a component of PM to achieve PM reductions and cites the benefits for reducing the impacts on climate 8
Black Carbon Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol Highlights Article 3 Basic Obligations –In taking steps to reduce emissions of particulate matter, each Party should seek reductions from those source categories known to emit high amounts of black carbon, to the extent it considers appropriate. –Each Party should apply best available techniques to mobile sources and stationary sources, and, as it considers appropriate, measures to control black carbon as a component of particulate matter. Article 4 Exchange of information and technology –Create conditions to facilitate the exchange of information, technologies and techniques, with the aim of reducing emissions … particulate matter, including black carbon, by promoting, inter alia: »Development and updating of databases on best available techniques, including those that increase energy efficiency, low-emission burners, good environmental practice in agriculture and measures that are known to mitigate emissions of black carbon as a component of particulate matter. Article 6 Strategies, policies, programmes, measures and information –Each Party should, to the extent it considers appropriate, also develop and maintain inventories and projections for emissions of black carbon, using guidelines adopted by the Executive Body 9
Highlights (continued) Article 7 Reporting –Each Party should also report, where available, its emissions inventories and projections for emissions of black carbon, using guidelines adopted by the Executive Body. Article 8 Research, development and monitoring –The Parties shall encourage research, development, monitoring and cooperation related to: The improvement of emission databases, The improvement of monitoring techniques and systems and of the modelling of transport, concentrations and depositions of … particulate matter, including black carbon; Article 10 Reviews by the Parties at sessions of the Executive Body –The Executive Body shall include in its reviews under this article an evaluation of mitigation measures for black carbon emissions, no later than at the second session of the Executive Body after entry into force of the amendment contained in decision 2012/2. 10 Black Carbon Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol
11 Arctic Council
ACAP SLCF and Contaminants Expert Group* 12 Undertaking projects to reduce short-lived climate forcers and contaminants (SLCFCs) in the Arctic region, taking into account the needs of indigenous populations. Range of projects includes: problem scoping, source identification via emission inventories, mitigation, and analysis of instruments, measures and strategies to reduce emissions. Important targets: –Diesel black carbon –Residential wood combustion –Wildfires –Agricultural burning –Industry –Heating & power sectors –End-of-Life Equipment * Formerly known as Project Steering Group
SLCFC-Black Carbon Projects in ACAP pipeline 13 ACAP-Approved Projects Norway-Finland led Black Carbon Reduction from Residential Wood Stoves (completed) US-led Reduction of Black Carbon from Diesel Sources in the Russian Arctic (being implemented) US – Arctic Black Carbon Case Studies Platform (being implemented) NEFCO/US - Valday Cluster Upgrade for Black Carbon Reduction in the Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation (being implemented) Projects Under preparation: Russia – System for Black Carbon Emissions Impact Management from sources in the Russian Arctic NEFCO – Russian Arctic-Barents Region Short-lived Climate Pollutants Mitigation Project
14 Need to improve the scientific basis for Arctic Council work on SLCPs: –Improve the spatial, temporal, and sectoral resolution of anthropogenic emissions –Include increased monitoring, research, and modelling. –Consider SLCP mitigation options in an integrated manner that takes into account SLCPs, greenhouse gases, and co- emitted air pollutants –Include in this integrated work the assessment of the cost- effectiveness of measures to reduce SLCPs and co-emitted air pollutants –Address the co-benefits to human and ecosystem health from actions on carbon dioxide, SLCPs, and other air pollutants AMAP Climate Issues 2015: Summary for Policy Makers
Framework for Action Common Vision for Enhanced Action First time that a voluntary framework addressing black carbon (and methane) was adopted by Arctic Council nations. –High-level political commitments of the Arctic States, and does not have binding obligations under international law Commit to: –Take enhanced, ambitious, national and collective action to accelerate the decline in overall black carbon emissions and to significantly reduce overall methane emissions –Provide black carbon inventories starting in 2015 (intended to leverage, not duplicate, efforts under LRTAP) as part of national report, including mitigation actions, to be submitted once for each two-year cycle of AC chairmanship –Establish an aggregate summary of black carbon and methane emissions –Adopt an ambitious, aspirational and quantitative collective goal on black carbon, and to consider additional goals, by the next Arctic Council Ministerial meeting in 2017 Calls upon Observers to join in these actions given significant Arctic impacts of black carbon emission from non-AC states Desired outcome is greater transparency, improved quality of information, incentivize further emission reductions, measure collective progress over time 15
Other International Efforts to Address Black Carbon 16 Climate and Clean Air Coalition ‒ Formed in 2012 to raise awareness about short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their impacts and bring together different stakeholders to collectively take urgent action at a global, national and local level accelerating reduction of SLCPs, including black carbon. ‒ Partners include nearly 40 countries and more than 50 international organizations. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves ‒ Clean cooking solutions are a promising approach to mitigating SLCPs. ‒ Household air pollution also contributes to ambient air quality problems. ‒ Global Alliance launched in 2010 with the goal of clean cooking in 100 million homes by 2020.
17 Improve Our Understanding of: –Inventories and source data –Mitigation options –Best available technology Promote best practices Raise Awareness Value of and commitment to reporting Value of collective action Common Themes
How Black Carbon Information Can Impact Policy 18 Greater understanding of the emissions and climate and health effects of black carbon as a constituent of PM 2.5 can influence policy by: Encouraging countries to chose strategies that reduce black carbon when implementing the particulate matter programs mandated by national legislation Accelerating expected black carbon emission reductions by promoting earlier adoption of technology for mobile and other sources Providing information on climate benefits of black carbon reductions to complement the robust literature of PM-related health effects Expanding the body of knowledge on black carbon will also help promote international policies and programs to reduce short-lived climate pollutants More complete information on emissions, potential control options, and local, regional, and global scale impacts will support implementation of effective black carbon mitigation efforts.
Appendix I Black Carbon Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol 19
Black Carbon Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol Preamble –Recognizing the assessments of scientific knowledge by international organizations, such as the United Nations Environment Programme, and by the Arctic Council, about the human health and climate co-benefits of reducing black carbon and ground-level ozone, particularly in the Arctic and in the Alpine regions, –Noting furthermore that this Protocol is the first agreement under the Convention to deal specifically with reduced nitrogen compounds and particulate matter, including black carbon. Article 2 Objective –A further objective is that Parties should, in implementing measures to achieve their national targets for particulate matter, give priority, to the extent they consider appropriate, to emission reduction measures which also significantly reduce black carbon in order to provide benefits for human health and the environment and to help mitigation of near-term climate change. 20
Article 3 Basic Obligations –In taking steps to reduce emissions of particulate matter, each Party should seek reductions from those source categories known to emit high amounts of black carbon, to the extent it considers appropriate. –Each Party should apply best available techniques to mobile sources covered by annex VIII and to each stationary source covered by annexes IV, V, VI and X, and, as it considers appropriate, measures to control black carbon as a component of particulate matter, taking into account guidance adopted by the Executive Body. BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) 21
BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) Article 4 Exchange of information and technology –Each Party shall, in a manner consistent with its laws, regulations and practices and in accordance with its obligations in the present Protocol, create favourable conditions to facilitate the exchange of information, technologies and techniques, with the aim of reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter, including black carbon, by promoting, inter alia: ( a) The development and updating of databases on best available techniques, including those that increase energy efficiency, low-emission burners, good environmental practice in agriculture and measures that are known to mitigate emissions of black carbon as a component of particulate matter; (b) The exchange of information and experience in the development of less polluting transport systems; (c) Direct industrial contacts and cooperation, including joint ventures; and (d) The provision of technical assistance. 22
Article 5 Public awareness –1. Each Party shall, in a manner consistent with its laws, regulations and practices, promote the provision of information to the general public, including information on: (a) National annual emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter, including black carbon, and progress towards compliance with the emission reduction commitments and other obligations referred to in article 3; Article 6 Strategies, policies, programmes, measures and information –Each Party should, to the extent it considers appropriate, also develop and maintain inventories and projections for emissions of black carbon, using guidelines adopted by the Executive Body BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) 23
Article 7 Reporting –Each Party should also report, where available, its emissions inventories and projections for emissions of black carbon, using guidelines adopted by the Executive Body. –Upon the request of and in accordance with the timescales decided by the Executive Body, EMEP and other subsidiary bodies shall provide the Executive Body with relevant information on: (a) Ambient concentrations and depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds, as well as, where available, ambient concentrations of particulate matter, including black carbon, volatile organic compounds and ozone; BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) 24
Article 8 Research, development and monitoring –The Parties shall encourage research, development, monitoring and cooperation related to: The improvement of emission databases, in particular those on particulate matter, including black carbon, ammonia and volatile organic compounds; The improvement of monitoring techniques and systems and of the modelling of transport, concentrations and depositions of sulphur, nitrogen compounds, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter, including black carbon, as well as of the formation of ozone and secondary particulate matter; The improvement of the scientific understanding of the potential co- benefits for climate change mitigation associated with potential reduction scenarios for air pollutants (such as methane, carbon monoxide and black carbon) which have near-term radiative forcing and other climate effects; BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) 25
Article 10 Reviews by the Parties at sessions of the Executive Body –The Executive Body shall include in its reviews under this article an evaluation of mitigation measures for black carbon emissions, no later than at the second session of the Executive Body after entry into force of the amendment contained in decision 2012/2. BC Language in the Amended Gothenburg Protocol (cont’d) 26
Appendix II Black Carbon Language in the Framework for Action on Enhanced Black Carbon and Methane Emissions 27
Take Action Nationally National actions, action plans or mitigation strategies –Setting of aims and objectives –Implementing policies and regulations –Identifying best practices and awareness-raising activities Improved emission information and inventories –Develop and improve emission inventories and emission projections for BC using, where possible, relevant guidelines from the Convention on Long- Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) –Improve the quality and transparency of information related to emissions of black carbon –enhance expertise on the development of black carbon inventories, including estimation methodologies and emissions measurements, by working jointly through the Arctic Council and other appropriate bodies National Reporting –Including summary of current black carbon emissions to CLRTAP, where appropriate, and, if available, future projections –Summary of National Actions, National Action Plans, or Mitigation Strategies by sector –Highlights of best practices or lessons learned for key sectors 28
Enhance Collective Action Continually driving mitigation ambition –Two-year iterative process driven by an Expert Group –Periodically assess the progress made under this Framework Science, research and monitoring –Improve the understanding of black carbon and methane emissions, emission inventories, Arctic climate and public health effects, and policy options. –Four-year cycle of periodic scientific reporting Assessment of status and trends of short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon and methane Focus on the impacts of anthropogenic emissions on Arctic climate and public health. Increasing awareness Project and sector based activities –Based on best available technologies and practices for concrete reductions of black carbon and methane emissions in different sectors of the economy –The Arctic Chair may select a particular sector or area for focused attention 29
Promote Action By Others Arctic Council Observers –Emissions substantially impact the Arctic –Robust mitigation action by Arctic Council Observer States is vital for overall success –Requested to actively participate in the implementation of the Framework by: Strengthening their domestic actions Developing robust emission inventories Taking part in relevant meetings Submitting national reports Other stakeholders –Private sector has an important role in reducing emissions, developing new technologies, and sharing best practices –Funding institutions can promote financing of activities and mainstreaming consideration of these emissions into broader funding decisions. International and regional forums and agreements 30
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