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Civil Rights Movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Rights Movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil Rights Movement

2 Civil Rights Movement Struggle for African Americans to get equal rights Led to later efforts by women, other ethnic minorities, the disabled, the young, and the old to obtain equal rights

3 Civil Rights Movement History of Civil Rights 19th century
Abolitionists, Civil War, Emancipation, Reconstruction, resistance to the rise of the Ku Klux Klan 20th century W.E.B. DuBois economic efforts, birth of NAACP, desegregation of Armed Forces Important amendments 13th amendment (1865) – no slavery in US 14th amendment (1868) – all people born in the US (except Native Americans) are US citizens and are entitled equal rights. Rights are protected by due process of the law 15th amendment (1870) – Passed during Reconstruction; gave black men the right to vote 17th amendment (1920) – gave women the right to vote

4 Civil Rights Movement American Indian Women’s civil rights movements
Political Reform organizations: African American NAACP, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) Chicano League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), La Raza Unida (Mexican-Amercans United) American Indian American Indian Movement (AIM) Women’s civil rights movements National Organization for Women (NOW)

5 Civil Rights Movement Origins
After Civil War, promise of equality to all but promise cut by Reconstruction 1947 – Jackie Robinson first African-American baseball player to join the major leagues

6 Civil Rights Movement Origins – Truman Years
Truman administration issued To Secure These Rights calling for civil rights laws Laws proposed by Truman not pass Congress Re-election demanded inauguration be integrated 1948 – executive orders to desegregate armed forces End discriminatory hiring practices in federal government

7 Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education 1954
After Reconstruction, Southern States passed laws requiring segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – separate but equal NAACP started challenging in the 1930s

8 Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education 1954
Sweatt v. Painter (1950) Sweatt allowed to attend Law School at UT at Austin 1953 – NAACP lawyers appealed Kansas court ruling to Supreme Court Segregated public schools denied equal protection to African American students

9 Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education 1954
Thurgood Marshall argued case or NAACP May 1954 Earl Warren wrote unanimous decision for Supreme Court “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” Brown overturned Plessy and marked end of legal separation in schools

10 Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board of Education 1954
Court said desegregation should happen with “all deliberate speed” Enforcement left up to lower courts Vague terming allowed years before fully implemented

11 Civil Rights Movement Supreme Court stopped segregation in schools, but Jim Crow laws allowed it to continue in other public areas

12 Civil Rights Movement Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956
Dec 1955, Rosa Parks (seamstress and local NAACP member) refused to surrender bus sea to white passenger Parks was arrested Local African American leaders started boycott of public buses

13 Civil Rights Movement Montgomery Bus Boycott
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a pastor in Montgomery, was leader of the boycott Lasted 13 months and brought cause attention of the world King rallied boycotters at his church Carpooled to take each other to work King arrested and home bombed Boycotted lasted and brought to federal court Court ruled segregation on buses violated 14th amendment

14 Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of1957
Eisenhower passed to increase African American voting in the South Created Civil Rights Commission and established Civil Rights Division in US Justice Department Gave federal courts the power to register African American voters Registration procedures so complex the act prove ineffective but set pattern for later legislation

15 Civil Rights Movement Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957
Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas favored segregation Ordered Arkansas National Guard to surround all-white Little Rock High School to prevent nine African American students from entering Faubus refused to protect Little Rock Nine who were being threatened by angry mobs Eisenhower ordered federal troops so they could attend school

16 Civil Rights Movement Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957
Faubus closed school down and asked for postponement of integration plan Supreme Court forced reopening of school

17 Civil Rights Movement Faubus one of many resisting desegregation
1964 – restaurant owner Lester Maddox wielded axe handle at African American trying to enter “whites only” restaurant Maddox sold restaurant instead of allowing African Americans Maddox ran for governor of Georgia and won

18 Civil Rights Movement 1963 – Alabama Governor George Wallace stood at the door at the University of Alabama to prevent two African-American students from enrolling Claimed constitutional rights of states to operate schools Forced to step down

19 Civil Rights Movement Congressional Bloc of Southern Democrats
Southern Democrats banded in Congress to stop civil rights legislation Many held important committee chairs Power to prevent legislation coming to floor for a vote

20 Civil Rights Movement Sit-Ins and Freedom Rides in the South – 1960: African American students held sit-in at “whites only” lunch counter in N. Carolina Soon copied throughout the South 1961 – Freedom Rides Interracial groups rode busses. Downtown stores agreed to desegregate lunch counters Created confrontations federal government had to intervene Riders faced risk of death and violence

21 Civil Rights Movement King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1963
King believed in non-violence Used civil disobedience against unjust laws Led march in Birmingham, Alabama and arrested Wrote letter explaining why African Americans could no longer patiently wait for constitutional rights Critics felt fight for rights in courts, not the streets King argued civil disobedience was justified because “everyone has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws”

22 Civil Rights Movement March on Washington, 1963
Dr. King and other Civil Rights leaders marched on Washington to encourage Congress to pass new civil rights bill Largest demonstration for human rights in US history King gave “I Have A Dream” speech Dr. King and others met with President Kennedy at the Whitehouse Kennedy assassinated few months later and Congress more willing to pass legislation proposed before his death afterward

23 Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or ethnic origins in hotels, restaurants, and all places of employment doing business with the federal government or in interstate commerce. Cut off aid to segregated schools Gave federal government power to register voters Established Equal Employment Opportunities Commission to enforce all of it

24 Civil Rights Movement Voting Rights 24th amendment Selma Marches
No more poll taxes in federal elections Selma Marches 1965 – Dr. King in Selma, Alabama to organize march demanding vote Demonstrators attacked, President Jonson introducing voting rights bill

25 Civil Rights Movement Voting Rights Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended poll taxes, suspended literacy tests used to prevent African Americans from voting, and led to large increase in African American voting

26 Civil Rights Movement Affirmative Action 1965
Executive Order requiring employers with federal contracts to take steps to raise the number of minority employees to correct past imbalances Women later added Companies and institutions must actively recruit minority candidates

27 Civil Rights Movement Affirmative Action 1965
Increased minority representation in colleges, professions, and many businesses Critics challenged it was a reverse form of discrimination Regents of University of California v. Bakke SC says affirmative action OK, racial quotas are not Many affirmative action programs phased out over time

28 Civil Rights Movement Billy Graham – Christian preacher and major civil rights supporter Spiritual advisor to many presidents Anti-Communist Paid to bail out Dr. King from jail Advised Eisenhower to send troops for Little Rock Nine One of first preachers to address large crowds behind the Iron Curtain and call for world peace

29 Civil Rights Under Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson became president when Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas November 22, 1963 Johnson proposed a far-ranging social program similar to the New Deal called the Great Society Improve quality and opportunity for all Americans

30 The Great Society Civil Rights War on Poverty Medicare Act of 1965
Civil Rights Act (1964) Voting Rights Act (1965) Affirmative Action War on Poverty Economic Opportunity Act (1964) Created new government office to administer programs Job Corps – train underprivileged youths and domestic “Peace Corps” to help in depressed areas Medicare Act of 1965 Social Security expanded to provide medical care, hospital insurance, and post-hospital nursing for people over 65 Aid to cities New cabinet post added to help cities Money provided for urban planning, slum clearance, rental assistance for the poor, reconstruction of buildings

31 Civil Rights Under Johnson
Changes to immigration McCarren-Walter Act (1952) – kept immigration quotas at 1920s levels Immigration Act of 1965 was less biased Each country given identical quota Preference given to those with family already here or with valuable skills Restricted Latin American immigration for first time

32 Civil Rights Under Johnson
Johnson beat Barry Goldwater in 1964 election in a landslide Goldwater wanted to revive conservatism Many feared he was too extreme Despite Great Society, many Americans stayed in poverty Vietnam War caused Johnson to withdraw funding Johnson did not seek another term in 1968

33 Women’s Liberation Movement
1960s – Women’s Liberation (or feminist) Movement Women were expected to stay at home and be wives and mothers Women’s Liberation focused on greater economic and social equality

34 Women’s Liberation Movement Reasons
Dissatisfaction Many women dissatisfied as housewives and sought freedom to express themselves in careers Influence of Civil Rights Many women leaders in movement Adopt same techniques for women’s liberation – lobbying, sit-ins, demonstrations, boycotts, and strikes Dynamic Leadership Highly educated and talented women in leadership Betty Friedman, Gloria Steinem Steinem created Ms. Magazine for women’s concerns and viewpoints “Sexual Revolution” Sex education began to be taught in school Birth control pills protected women from pregnancy Women are not “sex objects”; they are human beings Impact of Social Science Margaret Mead and other social scientists began to see women’s low status in Western society as creation of men not biological

35 Women’s Liberation Movement
1963 – Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique Galvanized middle class women Challenged belief that education suburban housewives were happy being at home Women were as capable as men and should be permitted to compete for same jobs 1966 – Friedan helped form National Organization of Women (NOW)

36 Achievements of Women’s Liberation
Education Affirmative action – universities no longer able to discriminate based on sex for admissions Women professors hired Greater equality in admissions to military academies, law schools, and medical schools Employment End discrimination in hiring 1963 – Equal Pay Act Companies had to pay women the same wages as men for same work New attitude Replace Miss and Mrs with Ms Opposed sexist language No women as sex objects in advertising Opposed sexual discrimination in textbooks Lobbied for more funds to research women’s diseases like breast cancer

37 Achievements in Women’s Liberation
Roe v. Wade (1973) Many states prohibited abortion Feminists felt women had a right to choose Pro-choice Supreme Court held that a women has a constitutional right to privacy A woman had a right to end her pregnancy in the first 3 months if she wanted Overturned all state laws prohibiting abortion in first three months Title IX Part of Educational Amendments Act (1972) Banned sex discrimination in educational institutions Guaranteed girls had same opportunities as boys Enforcement of act linked to federal funding Major impact on American society 1in 27 girls played varsity sports in high school before Title IX 2001 – 1 in 2.5 Helped women pursue higher degrees, compete in sports, enter jobs and educational fields dominated by men Before – less women in college. Today, more women than men in college

38 Civil Rights Movement Increasing African American Militancy
Demand for change strong among young African Americans Civil rights had not ended private bias or provide equal opportunities Many African Americans felt Dr. King’s methods of non-violence were not powerful enough

39 Civil Rights Movement Militants believed in Black Power – African Americans should use their votes to win concessions from government and they should control their own communities and patronize their own businesses to free themselves from whites

40 Civil Rights Movement Non-Violent Militant
Those who participated in sit-ins, by provoking segregationists into angry responses, succeeded in winning sympathy from others. Willingness to use violence Best known for sit-ins and marches Known for being openly armed in uniforms of black berets and leather jackets Men, women, and children participated in peaceful protests. Predominately males Groups – SCLC, NAACP, SNCC, and CORE Group(s) – Black Panthers Leader – Martin Luther King, Jr.

41 Black Power Movement Search for New Identity New Groups Emerge
Late 1960s – African Americans began to search for cultural identity Rejected imitating whites o being absorbed in American culture Proud of themselves and “Black is Beautiful” Developed distinctive styles like Afro haircuts New Groups Emerge New groups to challenge non-violent NAACP Militant Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) barred white participation Black Muslims believed Islam should be religion of African Americans and create own black state Black Panthers demanded reparations be given to the black community for centuries of oppression

42 Black Power Movement Malcolm X Leading black Muslim
Questioned King’s non-violent resistance Believed African Americans should meet violence with violence and should not depend on white people Urged African Americans to obtain control of businesses and communities Assassinated by rival Black Muslims in 1965

43 Civil Rights Movement Black Panthers
African-American activists in Oakland, California Had own newspaper and claimed right to carry weapons to protect black neighborhoods from police Ran free breakfast for African American children 10 point program demanded greater opportunities and benefits for African Americans Full employment, decent housing, education, and freedom to determine destiny

44 Civil Rights Movement Ghettos Erupt – 1968
In North, African Americans faced segregation based on living patterns Many African Americans confined to ghettos April 1968 Dr. King was assassinated Death sparked race riots across the nation that cost dozens of lives and destroyed property Commission found lack of job opportunities, urban poverty, and white racism was what was behind the riots

45 Chicano Movement Mexican Americans, known as Chicanos, often faced discrimination, exploitation, and racism in US Chicano Movement focused on farm workers’ voting and political rights

46 Chicano Movement Early leader was Hector Perez Garcia, a surgeon and WWII veteran Noticed Mexican Americans barred from entering restaurants, etc 1949 – Garcia learned local Texas funeral home refused to allow Mexican-American soldier’s family to its chapel Garcia arranged for burial in Arlington National Cemetery Became first Mexican American to serve on US Commission on Civil Rights

47 Chicano Movement Cesar Chavez Organizer of farm workers in California
Chavez started group to support farm worker’s rights, demand increased wages, and better working conditions Chavez focused on non-violent means Organized nation-wide boycotts and took part in hunger strikes State legislators passed laws to improve lives of farm workers

48 Chicano Movement Dolores Huerta
Mexican-American labor leader closely associated with Cesar Chavez 1960s – helped Chavez to form National Farm Workers Association which became Unite Farm Workers Spent life working for legislation to extend air to families of farm workers 1980s- expanded to include women’s rights, environmental protection, and immigration policy

49 Chicano Movement Chicano Mural Movement
Mexican Americans expressed greater appreciation of own culture Began painting murals in barrios (ethnic neighborhoods) through Southwest in 1960s Wall murals gave public presence in public life In El Paso, more than 100 Chicano wall murals

50 American Indian Movement (AIM)
Americans Indians also got restless during the 1960s. 1953 – government transferred responsibility of Native Americans living on reservations to the state governments Many state didn’t have the funds to give the same level of services 1963 – federal government reversed its policy and began encouraging tribal life on reservations

51 American Indian Movement (AIM)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against Native Americans 1970 – President Nixon announced federal govt would honor treaty obligations Many Native Americans felt they were being mistreated. Slogan – “Red Power”; formed American Indian Movement to get public opinion in their favor Sought greater respect for heritage Introduced term “Native American” and protested media with anti-Indian bias

52 Civil Rights Movements – Court Cases
Legislation (passage of new laws) and litigation (disputes settled in courts) greatly expanded people’s rights Go to a federal district court, listens and applies to the facts of the law Don’t like the decision? Appeal it at US Court of Appeals Supreme Court only hears about 100 cases a year from the 10,000 cases appealed

53 Civil Rights Court Cases
Mendez v. Westminster School District (1947) Some places in California sent Mexican-American children to separate public schools District court ruled this practice violated the 14th amendment Westminster appealed Ruled it was not a constitutional issue California law required segregation of Chinese and Japanese children. Court upheld separation within a race was not permitted if not by a specific state law. Later that year, California repealed its school segregation laws

54 Civil Rights Court Cases
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD (1948) Based on Mendez v. Westminster, Texas Attorney General decided that segregation of Mexican-American children was illegal Delgado and others sued Bastrop ISD claiming the separation of Mexican-American children without a state law was a violation US District Court agreed

55 Civil Rights Court Cases
Hernandez v. Texas (1954) Hernandez convicted of murder in a Texas court with an all white jury No Mexican Americans had served on a jury in that country for more than 25 years Hernandez appealed to US Supreme Court claiming 14th amendment and equal protection of the law had been violated Texas argued that Mexican Americans were not entitled to special protections Supreme Court ruled Mexican Americans formed a separate class that was entitled to protection “The right to be tried by jurors from which members of his class are not excluded

56 Civil Rights Court Cases
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) The U.S. Supreme Court decided Amish children could not be placed in compulsory schools past 8th grade because it violated the parents’ rights to freedom of religion (Free Exercise Clause) Example of Effects (Prohibited all states from claiming absolute right to compulsive education and intrude in how families raise their children

57 Civil Rights Court Cases
White v. Regester (1973) State legislators periodically change district boundaries for changes in population 1970 – Texas changed district boundaries; Bexar and Dallas counties became districts with several members Way it was drawn out, Mexican Americans and African Americans in these two districts would have no chance of getting elected US Supreme Court upheld lower court ruling that Texas had to make these into smaller one-member districts, giving Mexican American barrios the chance to elect their own candidates Texas could not discriminate by setting up multi-member districts

58 Civil Rights Court Cases
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby (1984) 1971 – US Supreme Court ruled children do not have a fundamental right under the Constitution to an education Civil rights activists filed lawsuits in various state courts based on provisions of state constitutions Mexican American legal group MALDEF) filed a suit against Kirby, the Texas Education Commissioner, on behalf of Edgewood ISED District claimed the state method for funding education resulted in differences in rich and poor districts Violated Texas Constitution which promised a “fair and efficient” public school system Texas Supreme Court agreed and ordered a more equal system of public school finance.

59 Civil Rights Today Election of first African American President – Barack Obama First Hispanic women appointed to Supreme Court – Sonia Sotomayor

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