Presentation on theme: "Aircraft Ice Protection Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Aircraft Ice Protection Systems Winter OperationsAircraft Ice Protection Systems
2 Overview Anti-ice Systems Window Heat Probe Heat Engine Anti-ice Wing Anti-iceWindow HeatFront WindowsSide WindowsProbe HeatOperationIndicationSmartArt custom animation effects: vertical bullet list(Basic)To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List. In the List pane, click Vertical Bullet List (first row, third option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select Orange, Accent 6 (first row, 10th option from the left).To create another row, select the bottom, first-level (color-filled) rectangle, and then under SmartArt Tools, on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click the arrow next to Add Shape, and select Add Shape After.To add bullet text area, select the new first-level (color-filled) rectangle, and then under SmartArt Tools, on the Design tab, in the Create Graphic group, click Add Bullet.To enter text, select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, enter text for each level. (Note: In the example slide, the first-level text is “Topic One,” “Topic Two,” and “Topic Three.” The second-level text is “Supporting Text.”)Select the border of the SmartArt graphic. Drag the left center sizing handle to the left edge of the slide to resize the width of the SmartArt graphic.To reproduce the bulleted text on this slide, do the following:Press and hold CTRL, and select the three second-level, bulleted text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Franklin Gothic Medium Cond.To reproduce the rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:In the Font Size box, enter 22 pt.Press and hold CTRL, and select the three color-filled rectangles (in the example above, these are the “Topic One,” “Topic Two,” and “Topic Three” rectangles).In the Font Color list, select White, Background 1, Darker 50% (sixth row, first option from the left).Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click Change Shape, and under Rectangles select Round Diagonal Corner Rectangle (ninth option from the left).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, select Text Box in the left pane, and in the Text Box pane do the following:Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click Shape Effects, point to Presets and select Preset 7 (second row, third option from the left).Under Text layout, in the Vertical alignment list select Middle.Under Internal margin, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Font group do the following:In the Left box, enter 3.8”.In the Font list, select Franklin Gothic Demi Cond.In the Top box, enter 0.2”.In the Font Size box, enter 32 pt.In the Right box, enter 0.17”.Click Shadow.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Text Box in the left pane, and in the Text Box pane, under Internal margin, in the Left box enter 3”.In the Bottom box, enter 0.2”.Increase the height of the SmartArt graphic by dragging the top or bottom sizing handle.To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:Select the first color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example slide, “Topic One”).On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Custom Animation.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:Select the SmartArt graphic on the slide, and then in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and select More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate, select Ascend.In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left).Click the arrow to the right of the ascend entrance effect, and then select Effect Options. In the Ascend dialog box, do the following:Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.On the Timing tab, in the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast).Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:On the SmartArt Animation tab, in the Group graphic list, select One by one.Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the double arrow below the animation effect to expand the list of effects.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, seventh option from the left).Press and hold CTRL, and select all the effects in the Custom Animation task pane. Then under Modify: Ascend, in the Start list, select After Previous.In the Transparency box, enter 90%Press and hold CTRL, and select the second, fourth, and sixth effects (ascend entrance effects) in the Custom Animation task pane. Click Change, point to Entrance, and then select More Effects. In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate, select Ease In.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.In the Transparency box, enter 0%.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Select the second color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example above, “Topic Two”).Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Left (first row, fifth option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.In the Stop position box, enter 60%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select Blue, Accent 1 (first row, the fifth option from the left).In the Stop position box, enter 90%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors select Black, Text 1, Lighter 50% (second row, second option from the left).Select the third color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example slide, “Topic Three”).In this module we will review the aircraft systems used to prevent ice accumulation.
3 System Overview Wing leading edge slats Window Heat Engine inlets ProbesThe outboard three wing leading edge slats and the Engine inlet cowls are anti-iced/de-iced. Probes are heated to prevent icing. Ice probe detectors detect ice formation as well as automatically control wing and engine anti-icing.
4 Wing and Engine Anti-Ice WAIWAIEAIEAIBoth wing and engine anti-ice systems use bleed air for anti-ice protection.
5 Engine Anti-ice Control Nose Cowl Anti-ice valveOFFONNose cowl anti-ice valves allow engine bleed air to heat the engine inlet. A three position switch controls valve operation; OFF closes the valves, AUTO allows the valves to open when ice is detected and ON opens the valves.
6 Engine IgnitionONWhenever the engine anti-ice is on, engine ignition automatically turns on as long as the engine start selector is in AUTO.
7 Engine Anti-ice Exhaust After heating the inlet cowl, the bleed air exhausts overboard through a vent on the bottom of the inlet cowling.
8 Engine Anti-ice Indication Thermal anti-ice (TAI) indications appear below the N1 primary engine indicators when the nose cowl engine anti-ice valve is open.
9 Non-Normal Indications Icing Detector failureIcing Conditions exist and one or both systems is OFFWing valve disagree lightsEngine valve disagree lightsNotice the top two lights are general indicator lights related to ice detection, even though they are above the wing or engine switches. The bottom valve lights are associated with the wing or engine depending on which switch they are above. Let’s have a closer look.
10 Engine Anti-ice Valve Failure The L(R) ENG ANTI-ICE EICAS message appears when the engine anti-ice valve is not in the commanded position. The valve may be failed open or closed. You use the non-normal checklist to find out the position of the valve.
11 Engine Anti-ice Non-Normal Valve ClosedValve OpenValve OpenValve ClosedOpen or Closed?Notice after determining if the valve is failed open or closed, you either prevent damage to the engine by avoiding high power settings if the valve is open when the temperature is above 100 or avoid icing conditions if the valve is closed.
12 Wing Anti-ice Wing anti-ice valve Wing Anti-ice Control Three outboard leading edge slatsThe wing anti-ice system provides bleed air to the three outboard leading edge slats on each wing. Wing anti-ice can be operated in-flight only. It is inhibited on the ground.
13 Wing Anti-ice ExhaustHoles on the underside of the three outboard leading edge slats exhaust the bleed air.
14 WAI In-Flight Operation When the switch is ON, or AUTO when ice is detected, and you are in-flight, the wing anti-ice valve opens and bleed air heats the outboard leading edge slats.
15 Wing Anti-ice Non-Normal (In-flight) Note: Run remaining normal checklists from this non-normal checklist because the after landing procedure contains new itemsNotice, that if the valve remains closed, avoid icing conditions. If the valve remains open, then you have some after landing items to remove bleed air from the wing anti-ice duct.
16 WAI Ground OperationAfter landing, the wing anti-ice valves automatically close, even if the switch is in the ON position to prevent structural damage to the wing. If you see a wing anti-ice valve disagree light on the ground, turn the wing anti-ice switch OFF. If the light remains on, then accomplish the AFTER LANDING items in the wing anti-ice non-normal checklist.
17 Automatic Ice Detection The ice detection system controls the engine and wing thermal anti-ice valves if the switches on the anti-ice control panel are in AUTO.If the switches are in OFF, the ice detection system provides an indication of icing conditions.There are no indications of icing conditions if the thermal anti-ice valve control switches are in the AUTO or the ON position.System inhibited on ground.The ice detection system controls the engine and wing thermal anti-ice valves if the switches on the anti-ice control panel are in AUTO. If the switches are in OFF, then the ice detection system provides an indication of icing conditions.
18 Ice Detector FailureWhen the ice detector fails, you do not use the AUTO position. In other words, turn the switches either OFF or ON as required.
19 ICING DETECTEDIf the selector is OFF then the icing light alerts you to manually turn on the heatIf the selector is in AUTO the icing light indicates a fault during icing conditionsLet’s review the special case where icing is detected and a valve is closed. You will get the associated icing message that will tell you to put the switch to ON. The EICAS message tells you which system is off.
20 Icing Dectected Valve Failure If, after turning the associated ANTI-ICE SELECTOR ON, the valve remains closed, then the associated anti-ice valve failure EICAS message we just reviewed appears. Recall that checklist said to avoid icing conditions.
21 Window Heat OverviewConditioned air for Anti-FogAll flight deck windows are electrically heated for anti-foggingThe forward windows are also electrically heated for anti-icingConditioned air flows over the forward windows for additional anti-foggingIndependent of window heat switchElectric heat to anti-fogElectric heat to anti-ice & anti-fogThe window heat system provides anti-fogging protection for all windows and anti-ice protection for the forward windows.
22 Window damageIf the window arcs or is damaged you should remove power to the window. Remove power to the left forward window.
23 Outer Window Pain Damage Window damage due to de-lamination or shattering of the outer pain is not a structural problem. There is no need to modify the flight profile.
24 Window Heat Non-Normal The INOP light appears for an overheat or a fault. Turning the switch off for 10 seconds allows the window to cool. If the INOP light is still on when you turn the window heat back on, then there is a fault. Notice there are no operational limitations with the window heat off.
25 Probe Heat OverviewThe four pitot static probes provide dynamic and static pressure for airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb instruments and the air data computers. The angle of attack probes send angle of attack information to the warning electronics unit. The total air temperature probe provides temperature for flight deck display and input to the thrust management and air data computers.
26 Probe Locations Total Air Temperature Capt/FO Pitot Probes AOA Probes Aux Pitot ProbesIce Detector ProbesHere are the probe locations on the left and right side of the nose.
27 Probe Heat IndicationTwo pitot tubes, two angle of attack (AOA) sensors and a total air temperature (TAT) sensor are electrically heated to prevent ice formation. Probe heat is on when either engine is running, except the TAT sensor heats only while in-flight. Indication of a loss of probe heat is on the overhead panel.
28 Probe Heat Failure Indications If probe heat fails to a single probe, then the individual probe message appears. If more than one probe is not heated, then the EICAS PROBE HEAT message appears.
29 Probe Non-NormalAs you know, erroneous flight instrument indications, such as unreliable airspeed, are likely with probe heat failures.
30 Pitot Heat FailureNotice that for either pitot tube failure, you are unable RVSM.
31 Water and Waste HeatThe water and waste drain lines are also heated to prevent ice from clogging the drains. Now for a short quiz.
32 Question What does the icing light indicate in this situation? The wing anti-ice valve failedEngine anti-ice failedIcing conditions existThe ice detector failedPlease select the best choice.
33 QuestionYou are over the North Atlantic on a track and you see this EICAS message. What communication do you make?Unable RVSM due equipmentNone is requiredWe are having a problem with our instrumentsHouston we have a problemPlease select the best choice.
34 QuestionIn this situation, you must avoid icing conditions.TrueFalseSelect the correct answer.
35 Question If you select this switch OFF, what happens? The left side window area will become coldThe left side window will not have anti-fog protectionThe left side window will have anti-fog protection but not anti-ice protectionThe left side window will be prone to shattering, you need to land as soon as possibleSelect the best answer.
36 Module CompleteYou have come to the end of this module.