Presentation on theme: "The organic farming Romanian team D ă n ă il ă Daniela Enariu Oana erpe Alexandra Barcan C ă t ă lina Neculau Maria Branea C ă t ă lina."— Presentation transcript:
The organic farming Romanian team D ă n ă il ă Daniela Enariu Oana erpe Alexandra Barcan C ă t ă lina Neculau Maria Branea C ă t ă lina
The organic farming (similar term with biological) is a modern method to cultivate plants, to fatten animals and produce food using processes and technology that are very close to the laws of nature, it does not use fertilizers and pesticides synthesis, hormones, antibiotics and intensive livestock systems, but it promotes sustainable production systems, diversified and balanced to prevent environmental pollution and harvest. Organic farming differs from conventional farming. The procedures for obtaining organic products are regulated by strict production rules and principles, which start with the quality you need to own the land and up to achieve the final product. The role of this system of agriculture is to produce a cleaner food, more appropriate for body metabolism, but in full correlation with environmental conservation and development. Definition and characteristics
GMOs and their derivatives are prohibited in organic agriculture. The rules and principles of organic farming, regulated by national legislation, that control the entire chain of obtaining an organic product from the ground and up to the final product, is done by organisations of inspection and certification, established for this purpose, which releases the certificate of organic product. The pass from conventional agriculture to organic agriculture is not sudden, but this happens by the completion of a transitional period called "conversion period". This is the time that farmers have at their disposal for adapting farm management in organic production rules.
Organic farming has emerged as a practical alternative to intensive conventional (industrialized) agriculture based on maximizing yields through the use of the stimulating of the production of energy-intensive nature in large quantities, in order to increase agricultural production in continue for a growing up population, mostly urban. Emphasizing intensification factors as: the use of large amounts of chemical fertilizers and the accessibility rapid intake of plant nutrition and mobilization of reserves biotic of the soil, drastic interventions on soil, the introduction of a genome on the plant which is resistance at diseases, pests and weeds through the so-called genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the impact on biodiversity and biotic balance in soil, water, air and agricultural products have had serious consequences through the progressive reduction in soil organic matter content by deterioration of soil structure, increasing the risk of erosion, reducing the number of representatives of the fauna (earthworms etc.), by increasing the soil compaction and subsidence, and finally by reducing its natural fertility. Environment were seriously damaged by nitrite and nitrate pollution in surface and groundwater, by the accumulation of toxic substances in the soil, feed and agricultural products with serious consequences for human and animal health. History
For the organic farmers from all around the world, these principles provide the basis for daily practice of the organic farming. These relate directly to organic farming techniques, such as using large rotations using manure; avoidance of the soluble fertilizers; ban intensive the livestock; incentives to avoid antibiotics and hormones; the use of mechanical and thermal control of weeds; emphasizing processing and sale of farm products directly to consumers; use of overtime when strictly necessary. The organic farming can be defined as a production system which avoids or synthetic compounds, the excluding general use of the fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives. The organic farming systems rely on the crop rotation, use of crop residues, animal manure, off-farm organic wastes. The concept of the soil as a living system favoring activities beneficial organisms are central to this definition of organic farming.
Organic farming aims: The production of food of high quality and in sufficient quantity; The work with natural systems; The encouragement and the enhancement of biological cycles within the farming system; The maintaining and the increasing long-term fertility of soils; The using as possible more renewable resources in agricultural systems; The work as much in a closed system; The ensuring of all living animals to enable them to meet all the aspects of their innate behavior; The avoiding of all the forms of pollution that may result from agricultural techniques; The maintaining genetic of diversity of the agricultural system and its surroundings, including the protection of habitats of the plant and wildlife; The allowing farmers to obtain an adequate income and satisfaction in their work, including the ensuring of a safe workplace.
Why the organic farming? Traditional goal of maximizing agricultural production is offset by a range of rural and environmental concerns and the fact that limited natural resources must be better managed. Meanwhile, subsidized overproduction in Europe brought a stream of financial tension unbearable and many political contradictions. While increased productivity has resulted in Europe and the emergence of surplus food self-sufficiency, the real cost of support for the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) was increased by 28% since the mid-70s, while farm incomes fell by almost 50 %. Dramatic changes in agricultural practices have resulted in a loss of habitat and species (eg loss of one fifth of hedges and more than ¾ of wetlands habitats). Plants grown mainly on the principles of organic agriculture are primarily the legumes as secondary growth are favorable to other plants, legumes are grown beans: sunflower, soya etc.