# Matter exists in different physical states.

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Matter exists in different physical states.
INTRODUCTION OF MATTER Ch. 1.4 Matter exists in different physical states. Matter exists in different physical states.

Particle arrangement and motion determine the state of matter.
States of matter are the different ___________ in which matter can exist. The familiar states are ________, __________, and _________. When a substance changes from one form to another, the ________________ of the molecules change. Particle arrangement and motion determine the state of matter. States of matter are the different forms in which matter can exist. The 3 familiar states are solid, liquid, and gas. When a substance changes from one form to another, the arrangement of the molecules change.

Solid, liquid, and gas are common states of matter.
A _______________is a substance that has a definite volume and a definite shape. The particles are __________together and can __________against each other while still in the same place. Solid, liquid, and gas are common states of matter. A solid is a substance that has a definite volume and a definite shape. The particles are close together and can vibrate against each other while still in the same place. Image from:

A _____________has a definite volume, but does not have a definite shape. The particles are attracted to one another and are close together. They are not fixed in place and can move from one place to another. A liquid has a definite volume, but does not have a definite shape. The particles are attracted to one another and are close together. They are not fixed in place and can move from one place to another. Image from:

A __________has no definite volume or shape
A __________has no definite volume or shape. A gas can take on both the shape and the volume of a container. Gas particles are not close together and can move easily in any direction. A gas has no definite volume or shape. A gas can take on both the shape and the volume of a container. Gas particles are not close together and can move easily in any direction Image from:

The speed at which gas molecules move depends on the temperature of the gas.
_____________is a measure of the average amount of kinetic energy(mass and speed) of the particles in an object. The speed at which gas molecules move depends on the temperature of the gas. Temperature is a measure of the average amount of kinetic energy(mass and speed) of the particles in an object.

Gas Behavior Gas molecules move __________at higher temperatures.
The _________, __________, and _________________of a gas are related to one another, and changing on can change the others. Gas Behavior Gas molecules move faster at higher temperatures. The volume, pressure, and temperature of a gas are related to one another, and changing on can change the others.

Two laws govern gases. ____________ law states that for a fixed amount of a gas kept at a constant temperature, pressure and volume are indirectly related. (One increases, the other decreases). ____________ law states for a fixed amount of a gas kept at a constant pressure, temperature and volume are directly related. (One increases, the other increases). Two laws govern gases. Boyles’ law states that for a fixed amount of a gas kept at a constant temperature, pressure and volume are indirectly related. (One increases, the other decreases). Charles’ law states for a fixed amount of a gas kept at a constant pressure, temperature and volume are directly related. (One increases, the other increases).

Use these words to fill-in the next page.
Definite shape Definite volume Atoms Matter Particles move quickly Particles close together No definite volume No definite shape Particles slide past each other We will use these words later-- Sublimation Boiling Freezing Condensation Melting Evaporation

solid gas liquid

Matter has observable properties
Properties of Matter Matter has observable properties

Matter has observable properties.
The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance are called _________________properties. Examples: color, shape, size, texture, volume, and mass Matter has observable properties. The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance are called physical properties. Examples: color, shape, size, texture, volume, and mass

Physical Changes A _________change is a change in any physical _____________of a substance. Example: stretching a rubber band Physical Changes A physical change is a change in any physical property of a substance. Example: stretching a rubber band

Chemical Properties and Changes
________________properties describe how substances can form ______substances. A chemical change is the change of one substance into ____________substance. Chemical Properties and Changes Chemical properties describe how substances can form new substances. A chemical change is the change of one substance into another substance.

Examples of chemical changes:
Burning wood, tarnished copper, dropping an antacid into water, rusted iron Examples of chemical changes: Burning wood, tarnished copper, dropping an antacid into water, rusted iron

Signs of a Chemical Change
Production of an _________– a rotting egg produces the smell of sulfur Change in _______________– burning wood increases temperature Change in ____________– fruit may change color when it ripens Formation of _________– an antacid that comes in contact with water starts to bubble. Formation of a ________– shells of clams and mussels are precipitates Signs of a Chemical Change Production of an odor – a rotting egg produces the smell of sulfur Change in temperature – burning wood increases temperature Change in color – fruit may change color when it ripens Formation of bubbles – an antacid that comes in contact with water starts to bubble. Formation of a solid – shells of clams and mussels are precipitates

Put a GREEN circle around the physical changes and a RED box around the chemical changes.

Properties are used to identify substances.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER Properties are used to identify substances.

Substances have characteristic properties.
We can identify __________ substances by comparing their physical properties with the physical properties of known substances. Texture, shape, and color are all physical properties that you use all of the time to ____________and sort objects. Substances have characteristic properties. We can identify unknown substances by comparing their physical properties with the physical properties of known substances. Texture, shape, and color are all physical properties that you use all of the time to identify and sort objects.

Properties Used for Identifying Substances
______________can be used to identify substances. Example: You could see a difference between a kilogram of liquid soap and a kilogram of honey by measuring their densities. Properties Used for Identifying Substances Density can be used to identify substances. Example: You could see a difference between a kilogram of liquid soap and a kilogram of honey by measuring their densities. However, it is possible for 2 different substances to have the same densities.

Solubility can be used to identify substances.
___________is a measure of how much of a substance dissolves in a given volume of liquid. Solubility can be used to identify substances. Solubility is a measure of how much of a substance dissolves in a given volume of liquid. Solubility can be used to identify substances.

Some substances ____________ electricity better than others.
This is why conductivity can be used to identify a substance. Some substances conduct electricity better than others. This is why conductivity can be used to identify a substance.

Some substances are attracted to __________, so we can use magnets to identify substances.
Some substances are attracted to magnets, so we can use magnets to identify substances.

Changes of state are physical changes.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER Changes of state are physical changes.

Matter can change from one state to another.
When matter changes from one state to another, the substance itself does not change. Changing state is a ________change. Matter can change from one state to another. When matter changes from one state to another, the substance itself does not change. Changing state is a physical change.

SOLID GAS LIQUID

Melting ________________is a process by which a solid becomes a liquid. The ______________temperature at which a substance begins to melt is called its melting point. Melting Melting is a process by which a solid becomes a liquid. The lowest temperature at which a substance begins to melt is called its melting point.

Freezing ___________is the process by which a liquid becomes a solid.
The temperature at which a specific liquid becomes a solid is called the freezing _________. Freezing Freezing is the process by which a liquid becomes a solid. The temperature at which a specific liquid becomes a solid is called the freezing point.

Evaporation __________is a process by which a liquid becomes a gas.

Sublimation __________is a process in which a solid turns directly into a gas without becoming a liquid first. Example: Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide. Sublimation Sublimation is a process in which a solid turns directly into a gas without becoming a liquid first. Example: Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide.

Boiling ___________is a process by which a liquid becomes a gas.
Boiling occurs when a _________reaches a certain temperature called the boiling point. Boiling Boiling is a process by which a liquid becomes a gas. Boiling occurs when a liquid reaches a certain temperature called the boiling point.

Condensation The process by which a gas changes its state to become a liquid is called ______________. Condensation The process by which a gas changes its state to become a liquid is called condensation.

Phase Graph Remove heat Add heat

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