Presentation on theme: "As a MATTER of fact….. What’s amatta with MATTER??? OK, really…. What is MATTER?"— Presentation transcript:
As a MATTER of fact….. What’s amatta with MATTER??? OK, really…. What is MATTER?
MATTER - Anything that has mass and takes up space
Matter is “stuff”, actually it is a variety of atoms and molecules!! This “stuff” is made of different materials, (molecules and atoms) and different materials have different characteristics. In Science, we call those characteristics…. ….PROPERTIES!!!
Physical Property – any property you can see, smell, touch, hear, or otherwise measure without performing a chemical reaction. Basically, the substance itself does not change. examples - color, mass, boiling point, freezing point, viscosity, solubility, density, magnetism, conductivity, state of matter
Describe the properties of Mass, Volume and Density…. …If you cannot do this, then you need to go back to your notes on measurement and STUDY!!!!! How would I find the mass and volume of these boxes? How would I find the volume of this shell? The process of finding the volume of an irregularly shaped object is called?? How are these liquids layered?
Chemical property – properties of matter that you can only observe and measure during a chemical reaction or after a chemical change. Here, the substance is transformed into a completely different substance. examples – flammability, reactivity, formation of a gas, burning, a new substance has formed.
Elements and Compounds There are all different types of matter. Matter is made up of different substances. When you break all the matter down into its most basic substance you have an element. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance. Like gold, hydrogen, or oxygen. A compound is when two or more elements chemically combine to form a new substance. Most substances in our world are compounds. Like water. (H20)
What about air?? Is air an element? Is it a compound? Turn to your neighbor and discuss…. circle Yes or No. Explain your reasoning below
Atoms and Molecules… …what’s the difference?? An atom is the most basic particle of matter that maintains all the properties of that element. Elements are made up of only one type of atom. Pure gold has only gold atoms. Oxygen has only oxygen atoms, etc…
However, atoms of different elements can chemically combine. This forms a larger particle called a molecule. The new substance formed is a compound. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms bond together to form water. (H2O)
Atoms bond together in set ratios to form compounds. The chemical formula of a substance tells you this ratio. H 2 O = CO 2 = CaCl 2 = H 2 O 2 =
NaCl NH 3 CH 4 C 2 H 6 Practice – sketch the molecules for the chemical compounds below.
Which cylinder has more molecules?_____________________ How does this picture show density??____________________ __________________________________________________ A B Molecules here are represented as red dots This is another way to show Density
Solubility - a PHYSICAL property The ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. How do you make kool aid? Let’s name some things that are soluble in water and some things that aren’t… How could we check to see if a substance is soluble? Let’s try it…
Two more PHYSICAL properties to remember: Magnetism - attractive and repulsive forces between two objects. Conductivity – the ability of a substance, usually a metal, to have electricity move through it.
The properties of, States of Matter …does the substance hold its volume and shape???? solid Liquid Gas
A solid has a definite volume and shape What would happen if you put your book in a bowl? Would it change it’s shape? Would the amount of space the book takes up be different? What about if you poured liquid out of a glass and into that same bowl, would the liquid change its shape to fit in the bowl? WHY?? Would there be more or less of the liquid, or would the volume of the liquid be the same?
A liquid has a definite volume, but its shape is NOT definite. The liquid will take the shape of the container it is in. WHY??
The particles in a solid are very closely packed together and rather rigid. The particles cannot move past each other. They vibrate in place. Low thermal energy The particles of a liquid are also packed fairly close, BUT, they can slide past each other. They can flow from place to place within the substance…. This is why we call liquids FLUID. More thermal energy than solids, but not as much as gases Particle Arrangement
SURFACE TENSION – molecules of water pull toward each other…. This causes a tension at the surface How many drops of water can you fit on the penny? What does the water look like on the penny?
Did your penny look like this one? Explain why!!!!
Viscosity – a liquids RESISTENCE to flowing The slower the flow = the greater the viscosity HONEY vs. VEGETABLE OIL Which has the greater viscosity? What do you think about the viscosity of water?
A gas does not have a set VOLUME, or a set SHAPE. The particles of a gas are free flowing, and unrelated to the molecules around them. They will continue to move out in a straight line until they make contact with another object. Gas particles will continue to spread out, filling all the space available to them. Gases have a lot of thermal energy. Think about it… What happens to scented spray when I spray it in one corner of the room? Can you squeeze gas particles into a small volume of space? Think about what happens to air as it moves in and out of your lungs…. DIFFUSION….
Particle Arrangement Motion Thermal Energy Level Explain this picture using your knowledge of kinetic molecular theory…..
Changes in States of MATTER Changes in the state of matter occur due to a change in the thermal energy of the objects particles. What is THERMAL energy??
Solid to liquid = melting = increase in thermal energy. Heat is going into the object causing the particles to move around faster. Liquid to gas = vaporization = increase in thermal energy. Boiling or evaporation. Energy is going into the substance causing the particles to move faster. Liquid to a solid = freezing = decrease in thermal energy. Heat is leaving the substance. The particles are slowing down and freezing. Gas to liquid = condensation = decrease in thermal energy. Gas particles lose heat, they get cooler, causing the particles to slow down and form a liquid.
How is Boiling different from Evaporation? Look it up on page 50-51 of your text and write the answer here.
Can a change in the State of Matter occur between a SOLID and a GAS??? Look this up and write a paragraph naming and explaining in detail this occurrence for extra credit