Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byRandolph Lane Modified over 7 years ago
“Energy and Sustainable Development” Kiyotaka AKASAKA Consul-General of Japan in Sao Paulo JICA / ABJICA Forum on Energy at Japan Foundation February 20, 2003
The Johannesburg Summit (Rio+10) from 2 to 4 September 2002 - The Political Declaration - The Plan of Implementation Poverty eradication Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production (Energy, Transport, Waste, Chemicals) Protecting and managing the natural base of economic and social development (Water, sanitation, Oceans, Disaster, Climate, Agriculture, Desertification, Mountain, Tourism, Biodiversity, Forests, Mining) Health and sustainable Development
WEHAB WaterHalve, by 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water EnergyImprove access to reliable, affordable energy services and resources HealthReduce infant and child mortality rates; reduce maternal mortality ratios; halt the spread of HIV/AIDS AgricultureHalve, by 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger BiodiversityAchieve, by 2010, a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity
Energy issues at the Johannesburg Summit 1. Access to energy (poverty eradication) 2. Increase in the use of renewable energy 3. Kyoto Protocol (climate change)
Key Statistics about Energy About 2.5 billion people lack access to modern energy services. World energy consumption is expected to grow at the rate of 2% a year until 2020. In South and Southeast Asia, about 2 billion people use wood or other biomass for energy. Global consumption of fossil fuels increased by 10% from 1992 to 1999. Fossil fuels provide about 80% of total global energy production and consumption. CO2s from the burning of fossil fuels account for 75% of greenhouse gas emissions.
The Summit agreed to take action to: Improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services and resources. Improve access to modern biomass technologies and fuelwood sources and supplies. Develop national energy policies and regulatory framework. Assist, with the financial and technical assistance, the access of the poor to reliable, affordable … energy services.
Japan’s Energy Literacy Initiative to promote energy education and to improve people’s understanding on energy efficiency and recycling Energy-related programme for children Energy-related courses for adults Dispatch of energy experts Development of an international network Partners include Japan, UK, Australia, Republic of Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, World Bank, UNEP and UNDP
Renewable energy EU Proposal: EU Proposal: industrialized countries should increase the share of renewables by at least 2% by 2010, to achieve the global share of 15% by 2010. Brazil’s Proposal: Brazil’s Proposal: increase the share of renewables to 10% of total energy use in all countries by 2010. The share of renewable energy sources (1999) World total13.9% Developed countries 6.2% Developing countries23.0%
The share of renewable energy in the total primary energy supply 1999 2010 targets Japan USA Canada EU UK Germany France Austria Sweden 4.9% 5.4 16.8 5.5 1.2 1.9 7.0 23.9 29.7 6.6% 6.9 - 12.0 - Source: For 1999, OECD. For 2010 targets, Japan’s Energy Advisory Body.
Plan of Implementation Plan of Implementation Final agreement on renewable energy “With a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources with the objective of increasing its contribution to total energy supply, recognizing the role of national and voluntary regional targets as well as initiatives, where they exist, ….”
The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol Reduction of the greenhouse gases from the 1990 level by 2008-12 Japan -6% US -7% EU -8% Russia 0% Australia+8%
CO2 emissions (1997) 6.3 billion carbon tons
CO2 Emissions/Population (1997) (t-C/capita)
CO2 Emissions/GDP (1997) (kg-C/US$ using 1990 prices and exchange rates)
Japan ’ s Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Ratio of Import OECD “Energy balances (1998-1999)
Transition of Japan ’ s Primary Energy Source: Japan’s Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho)
Japan ’ s Sources of Primary Energy Supply (%) SourcesFY1973FY2000 Oil Coal Natural gas Nuclear Hydro Geothermal New energies 77% 15 2 1 4 0 1 52% 18 13 12 3 0.2 1 Source: Japan’s Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho)
The Energy Policy of the Government of Japan FY1999FY2010 target New Energies Hydro Geothermal 7 21 1 19 20 1 Total 29 40 Source: Japan’s Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho) Energy saving Increase the share of renewable energies current 4.9% 7% in FY2010 (million KL)
International comparison, 2000 Photovoltaic applications Wind power Japan USA Germany Spain UK 317 139 114 9 1 144 2,555 6,113 2,402 409 World 712 17,706 Source: IEA, NEDO (1,000KW)
Demand for the use of new energies FY1999FY2010 target Green energy automobiles 65,000 units3,480,000 units Natural gas co-generation 1.5 million KW4.6 million KW Fuel cells 12,000 KW2.2 million KW Source: Japan’s Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho)
Nuclear energy 1/3 of Japan ’ s electric power supply comes from nuclear Sources of Japan’s electric power supply
Sources of Japan ’ s Primary Energy Supply (%) SourcesFY1999FY2010 Target Oil Coal Natural gas Nuclear Hydro Geothermal New energies 52.0% 17.4 12.7 13.0 3.6 0.2 1.1 About 45% About 19 About 14 About 15 About 3 About 0.2 About 3 Renewable energies 4.9 About 7 Source: Japan’s Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho)
Future agenda Plan of Implementation for Johannesburg SummitPlan of Implementation for Johannesburg Summit Dialogue between oil producing and consuming countriesDialogue between oil producing and consuming countries Post-Kyoto climate change negotiationsPost-Kyoto climate change negotiations-Targets -Developing countries -Sinks and renewable energies
Energy for sustainable development Economic growth Energy security Environmental protection
Thank you for your attention
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.