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Writing a Research Paper. Step 1: Define your topic.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing a Research Paper. Step 1: Define your topic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing a Research Paper

2 Step 1: Define your topic

3 Define Your Topic  State your topic in the form of a question.  List keywords and ideas related to your topic.

4 Step 2: Identify Sources

5 Identify Sources  Books  Periodicals  Online Sources

6 Step 3: Evaluate Sources

7 Evaluate Sources  Is the source timely? Reliable? Relevant?  Scan  Skim  Preview  Abstract

8 Step 4: Compile Sources

9 Compile Sources  For paper sources, file PDF scans  Jot Not App  For online sources, save links or PDF  Flash Drive  Cloud  Google Drive  Dropbox 

10 Step 5: Read & Take Notes

11 Read & Take Notes For every source:  Citation information  Title, author, publisher, place and date of publication  Outline main ideas and supporting details  If you use the text verbatim, make sure to use quotation marks and cite  If you summarize or paraphrase an idea, you don’t need to use quotations but you do need to cite

12 Index Card Method  Write each fact on a separate index card by hand  Color code the cards according to the source  Later, you can lay the cards out to organize your outline

13 Word Processing Method  Type your notes for each source in a Word document  Color code the text based on the source  Later, you can cut and paste the text to organize your outline

14 Step 6: Organize Ideas

15 Organize Ideas  Think about all of the sources you read. What main ideas or patterns stand out?  Review your notes. What themes are repeated?  Group related ideas from different sources together. Each main idea will later form a paragraph.  Set aside or discard notes that don’t fit with your main ideas.  Index Card Method: Group cards with similar ideas together.  Word Processing Method: Cut and paste similar ideas together in a list.

16 Step 7: Outline Paper

17 Outline Paper  List your main ideas. Put them in a logical order.  Distinguish between main ideas and supporting details. Put them in a logical order.  Some research papers follow this outline:  Abstract: Summary  Introduction: Topic, Research Questions, Literature Review, Hypotheses, Design  Methods: Participants, Materials, Procedure  Results: Data & Statistics  Discussion: Interpretation & Evaluation

18 Step 8: Write Paper

19 Write Paper  Write one paragraph for each of your main ideas  Remember that each paragraph should have:  Topic Sentence  Supporting Sentences  Concluding Sentence  Convert outline into full sentences as you write  Provide in-text citations after every piece of information from your sources

20 Write Paper  You should not have a quotation in every sentence of your paragraph  Use your own words and ideas  For each piece of cited information, you can:  Clarify by restating it in your own words  Explain your interpretation  Connect the information to other pieces of information  Show why that information is important or significant to the main idea of the paragraph  Show why that information is important or significant to your overall research topic

21 Step 8: Revise Paper

22 Revise Paper  When you are done writing, read your paper  Are there parts that are unclear?  Are there explanations or examples you could add?  Are the ideas in the paragraph in a logical order?  Are the paragraphs in a logical order?  Would someone unfamiliar with the topic understand your writing?  Make changes to organization and content  Add  Delete  Move

23 Step 9: Edit Paper

24 Edit Paper  Make changes to grammar, syntax, vocabulary  Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement, Singular & Plural Nouns, Determiners, Prepositions, Gerunds & Infinitives, etc.  Syntax: Simple, Compound, Complex sentences  Vocabulary: range, level, usage, meaning

25 Step 10: Format Paper

26 Format Paper  MLA  APA  Chicago Style  Consult Style Guide for formatting rules, especially for citations.

27 Step 11: Cite Sources

28 Cite Sources  Create a Works Cited page that lists all of your references  Follow the format depending on what style you are using  If you took good notes at the beginning, this is much easier!  Make sure in-text citations correspond with the Works Cited page

29 Step 12: Proofread Paper

30 Proofread Paper  Make changes to mechanics  Punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting  This is your last chance to find and fix any mistakes  Print out the paper  Read it out loud

31 Helpful Links  Conducting Research  Writing Research Papers  Formatting Citations

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