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Citations, footnotes, references (citing sources) Writing tips for a paper/report/formal writing project How to avoid plagiarizing by not copying/pasting.

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Presentation on theme: "Citations, footnotes, references (citing sources) Writing tips for a paper/report/formal writing project How to avoid plagiarizing by not copying/pasting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Citations, footnotes, references (citing sources) Writing tips for a paper/report/formal writing project How to avoid plagiarizing by not copying/pasting text

2 Expectations of a College Paper Use correct grammar/spelling Bulk of the paper should be your own words Take what you read in researching and do not just paraphrase, but process it into your own understanding and your own application and interpretation of what you read This is tough and takes time, effort, and work AND it is what you are expected to do Proofread for grammar/spelling/writing style and flow of text/non-cited wording Typically use 3 rd person (unless otherwise instructed); at the very least, do not change among 1 st, 2 nd, and 3rd

3 When not your own words If using a quote, make sure you use quotation marks and cite source Even if not a quote, and the text you write is a paraphrase, you must cite the source Citing sources Footnotes Parenthetical, in-text citations References/bibliography page “Bottom line, document any words, ideas, or other productions that originate somewhere outside of you.” du/owl/resource/589/02/ du/owl/resource/589/02/ “Bottom line, document any words, ideas, or other productions that originate somewhere outside of you.” du/owl/resource/589/02/ du/owl/resource/589/02/ Avoiding Plagiarism

4 More about your own words DO NOT copy/paste from a website and use that as the substance of your paper(even if you cite it ) Why? ONE: it’s plagiarism if not cited properly TWO: even with citation, copying/pasting the bulk of text in your paper is borderline plagiarism and open to interpretation of intent THREE: doing so is not writing You are supposed to write a paper not copy into a paper what someone else has written

5 Citing, footnotes, references How to cite depends on the instructions you receive from your professor (and may vary from class to class) If instructed to use MLA or APA (or another), then you may have to find how to follow those style guides without much direction from the professor APA MLA In-text citations are favorable to footnotes for citing references; footnotes refer to content/explanatory/copyright explanations

6 Breaking it down: In-text Citation (APA style) Example of in-text citation where my words were used but the thought came from someone else: Literature supports that an effective syllabus is an important part of student motivation and faculty planning while also serving as a contract between faculty and students and a portfolio artifact (Slattery & Carlson, 2005). The above example is not a quote, but the part of the sentence talking about a contract, faculty, students, and portfolio artifact came from an article by Slattery and Carlson published in 2005 and needed to be cited So, I had to cite the source but the sentence is written in my own words and is MORE than a paraphrase; I took info from a source and assimilated into my own statement about an effective syllabus and student motivation and faculty planning (which is my own thought) This is an in-text citation

7 Breaking it down: Citing a quote (APA style) In-text citation of a quote; must use page number: According to Knowles (1975), self-directed learning “is a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes” (p. 18). If I had not started with “According to Knowles…” then at the end of the quote I would have an in-text citation like this: (Knowles, 1975, p. 18)

8 Breaking it down: Use of footnotes For explanatory or content notes Footnote example for explanatory/content note: Exams over the terminology are a piece of student learning that needs to have a framework and a means for self-direction in that piece of learning, especially considering online 1 learning requires self-direction and self-discipline. For copyright APA footnotes MLA footnotes The number in red font is a footnote; footnote text appears at the bottom of a page 1 While the focus of this paper is for the f2f sections of this course; there are online sections and both delivery means need to be considered when redesigning content for either.

9 Breaking it down: References Any source you cite/use in your paper/project must be in a References or Bibliography page You can type the page from hand in real life OR, you can use the References feature in Office 2007 Add new source which goes into Manage Sources Create bibliography after you have entered sources IF using in-text citation, after you enter new sources you can then Insert Citation from the listed sources and you will get an in-text citation at the insertion point in the document References in Office 2007 allows you to chose the style (MLA or APA)

10 What about citing in a PPT? The presentation presented citing for formal writing You need to get in the practice of it In a PPT or brochure or something not so formal, you still MUST cite sources that are used; however, you do not need to be so formal about it (don’t need to use footnotes or in-text citations unless instructed to do so) Can cite as done on Slide 4 where the URL of the quote is provided (it is clear that it is a quote from that URL) needs to be conveyed in the PPT but doesn’t need to be conveyed formally as in a paper

11 Main Points Avoid plagiarism by getting out of the habit of copying/pasting from websites thinking that is OK – it is not OK, never OK, not even in informal writing (still must cite) Learn how to cite formally based on examples and Purdue OWL website links for APA and MLA styles (plenty to brush up on there) Use the References feature in Office 2007 Get in the habit of citing your sources Not citing is plagiarism and can result in a zero on a paper, an F in a class, expulsion from school (see IUPUI Student Code of Conduct)IUPUI Student Code of Conduct


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