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© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 17 Reading and Writing the Quantitative Research Report A quantitative study is not complete until the research report is written Typical audience –Communication scholars –Communication students Most reports use a basic format for presenting research results
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 The Literature Review The framework of the research investigation Based on the literature used to design and develop the research study –Puts the present study into perspective Historical overview of the variables studied Goes beyond description of literature – includes analysis, synthesis, and critique
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 The Problem Statement Positioned near or at the beginning of literature review A few sentences that identifies the research objective –What is the problem? –Why is this problem worthy of study? –Explain why the researchers conducted the study –Explain why consumers should be interested
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Types of Material In the Literature Review Findings from empirical research reports Articles that evaluate or propose theory Literature reviews that summarize an expanse of literature on a topic, issue or theory How many articles?
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Organizing the Literature Review 1. Chronological order 2. General to specific 3. Contrast-comparison 4. Trend identification 5. Methodological focus 6. Problem-cause-solution 7. Topical order
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Characteristics of the Literature Review First paragraph should be a road map of the rest of the literature review When presenting others’ research distinguish between assertions and conclusions supported with data Use signposts, headings, and transitions Usually written in third person
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Research Questions and Hypotheses Placement –At end of literature review –As they emerge from the literature reviewed Each stated separately as a simple question or sentence Use H 1, H 2, or RQ 1 or H1, H2, or RQ1
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 The Methods Section How was the research study executed? –Description of participants Demographic information Sampling techniques and sample size –Description of the research procedure What did the researcher do to collect data? –Description of variables Operationalizations
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 The Results Section Presented in the order of the research questions and hypotheses For each RQ or H –Statistical test used –Results of the test –Significance level of the test –Description connecting statistical results to support for or rejection of H or to answer RQ
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 The Discussion Section Researcher’s interpretation of the results –Reconcile the findings as a whole Not a restatement of the findings –What do these results mean? –Implications of the results Link conclusions back to the literature Limitations Future research
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Finishing the Quantitative Research Report Title Title page Abstract –State overall objective –Brief explanation of research method –Brief summary of results References –Alphabetical by authors’ last names –Must adhere to stylistic standards
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Using APA Style Citing others’ work –Direct citation –Indirect citation Creating the reference list –Complete alphabetical list by authors’ last names –Includes all literature cited in the report –Accuracy
© 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Issues in Writing Presentation affects how report is received Common writing problems –Careless writing –Unspecified assumptions –Failure to place study within published research –Unclear hypotheses and research questions –Vague and undefined terms
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