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Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)

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1 Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)
ACME Applying CLEANER PRODUCTION to MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) SESSION 3 United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology Industry and Economy Swedish International Development Agency

2 OUTLINE Objectives of this session 1/ Background information
> Why do we need Multilateral Environmental Agreements? 2/ Main clusters > What topics do MEA deal with? > How industries are concerned? 3/ Organisation of MEA > How are they developed and organised? 4/ Implementation > How could we strengthen MEA? Slide 2 – Objectives of the session This session provides an introduction to Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA). At the end of this session you should know what an MEA is and in what situations MEA may be a useful instrument. You should also know how MEA normally functions, what the most common elements of MEA are, and who the main actors around MEA typically are. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 2 / 17

3 BACKGROUND What are MEAs ?
Many global environmental issues don’t stop at the border: > they are caused by sources thousands of kilometers away; > they can have a regional or even a global impact. MEAs are international legal instruments that: > have a goal of environmental protection (sustainable development); > take measures to remedy, mitigate or otherwise deal with global and/or regional environmental concerns; > are concluded between a large number of states or international organizations as Parties; > can be embodied in a single instrument or more related instruments; > are governed by international law; > are concluded in written form. Slide 3 – What are MEAs ? Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA) are international agreements, between three or more countries (agreements between two countries are referred to as “bilateral agreements”) on how to jointly address environmental problems of cross-border nature. There exists a large number of examples of such cross-border environmental problems, including pollution of rivers and seas that are part of several countries (e.g. the Mediterranean sea or the Great Lakes in USA/Canada), and air pollution that is dispersed from one or several countries over several other countries (e.g. sulphur dioxide and dust from power plants in Europe). Because of their cross-border nature, these kind of environmental problems often require action in several countries to be dealt with, and MEA provides the rules for what each country is required to do to deal with the problems. The best known MEA are those that deals with global problems, affecting more or less all countries in the world. Among these are the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with the Kyoto Protocol, the Stockholm Convention of elimination of persistent organic pollutants, and the Basel Convention of hazardous waste. Key features of MEA include that: - They have a specific aim to address one or several clearly defined environmental problems. Often the MEA also have secondary objectives to support other development goals, e.g. poverty reduction or sustainable development, so as to be more attractive. - They are expressed in written form in a document that is approved (“ratified”) by the parliament (or similar) of each country - That they are goverened by international law. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 3 / 17

4 BACKGROUND Milestones in the evolution of MEAs
Stockholm Conference on the Human Development > First attempt to address relationship between environment and development at global level; > Adopted first global action plan for the environment; > Established UNEP. Rio Conference on Environment and Development > National and international policies redirected towards integration of environmental, economic and social objectives; > 2 main outputs: Rio Declaration and Agenda 21; > Accelerated the development of modern MEAs: more than 60% of present MEAs established after 1992. Slide 4 - Milestones in the evolution of MEAs The early MEAs from the mid 20:th century were mainly sectoral agreements on how to exploit and share natural resources, and only had environmental protection as a secondary objective. , primarily focused on the exploitation and maintaining economic usefulness of natural resources, rather than at protection for their own sake. The Stockholm Conference spurred development of modern MEAs. Modern MEAs are more holistic, system oriented and trans-sectoral agreements. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio (1992), was an important landmark for new generation of MEAs. The Conference adopted the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, documents that set out principles and action plan for sustainable development and further stimulated development of MEAs addressing complex inter-linked environmental problems. Two UNCED Conventions (the Convention on Biological Diversity and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) were the first agreements that clearly established interdependence of social, economic development. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 4 / 17

5 BACKGROUND Number of parties to MEAs Stockholm Conference (1972)
Slide 5 - Number of parties to MEAs Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from MEA Secretariats This slide shows the increasing numbers of parties (signatories) to some of the major global MEAs. It is noteworthy that there are today a little over 200 countries recognized by the UN. Many MEA have well over 50% of the countries in the world as members. Today there are over 500 MEAs, of which around 320 are regional agreements. Nearly 60% are adopted after the UN Stockholm Conference (1972), an important milestone in history of MEAs. The Conference indicated that a majority of people had realized that industrialization and economic development were posing an ever-increasing threat to the global environment, and that complex environmental problems have to address multiple aspects of interaction of society and environment. In the next slides an overview / classification is given of the types of MEAs we can distinguish Stockholm Conference (1972) Rio Conference (1992) ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 5 / 17

Slide 6 – Scope of MEAs The core MEAs are basically divided into five categories based on the issue they primarily deal with. MEAs can be either self-contained conventions (working through annexes or appendixes) or operate as the framework conventions that can develop protocols for addressing specific subjects requiring more detailed and specialized negotiations (UNFCCC with the Kyoto protocol is an example of the latter). The objectives and goals of MEA vary significantly even within a cluster. The common aspects include the sustainable development, the sustainable use of natural resources and the environment, or the protection of the environment in such a way as to ensure its sustainable use. None of the core environmental agreements are exclusively oriented to protection and conservation, but all of them share a common goal of sustainable development. Assessment and management of pollution is also an important cross-cutting thematic issue, which cuts across the chemicals and hazardous waste conventions, some biodiversity-related conventions, and the regional seas conventions and related agreements. It means that all of those conventions in one or another way address the need for pollution prevention. CHEMICALS & HAZARDOUS WASTE BIODIVERSITY LAND SEAS ATMOSPHERE ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 6 / 17

7 MAIN CLUSTERS Biodiversity / Land / Seas
MEAs related to protection and conservation of BIODIVERSITY. > Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); > Others include CITES, CMS, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands etc. MEAs focussing on protecting LAND from “negative altering”. > UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); > 3 Rio Conventions linked to climate change and biodiversity. MEAs relevant to the regional seas & MARINE ENVIRONMENT. Slide 7 – MEA clusters on: Biodiversity / Land / Seas Protection of biodiversity is directly relevant to pollution management and efficient use of resources, and, therefore, to Cleaner Production as a strategy to minimise pollution. Although text of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) – the key convention of the cluster – does not explicitly refer to Cleaner Production, it encourages one of Cleaner Production components - transfer of technologies “relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and do not cause significant damage to the environment”. Cleaner Production is also recognised as a key issue for implementation of the Convention in some areas, such as inland waters biodiversity: the Parties to CBD are requested to develop “preventative strategies such as Cleaner Production, continual environmental improvement, corporate environmental reporting, product stewardship and environmentally sound technologies to avoid degradation and promote restoration of inland water ecosystems” (CBD, COP-4, Decision IV/4). The UN Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD) is an example of conventions focussing on the use and protection of land. Every year a large portion of productive land globally is turned into desserts due to poor land use, over exploitation of the land etc. UNCCD is exclusively focussing on the desertification issue. However, the specific problems addressed by other conventions, e.g. climate change under UNFCCC, also have a direct impact on the rate of desertification, why also these conventions can be regarderd in some aspects as land use conventions. Conventions relevant to marine environment represent the largest cluster of MEAs. It includes, among others, 17 Regional Seas conventions and action plans and the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA). GPA provides a conceptual and practical guidance for protection of marine environment from land-based sources of pollution, and is founded on “the precautionary, preventive and anticipatory approaches”. Actions recommended by GPA cover the most, if not all, components of Cleaner Production: policies aimed at encouraging prevention, use of substitutes for hazardous chemicals, use of BAT and BEP, Cleaner Production processes, etc. The Regional Seas conventions and action plans are multi-sectoral agreements, most of which incorporate the precautionary principle and a high-priority aim to prevent and eliminate pollution of a respective sea as highest priority. They strongly emphasise the role of Cleaner Production in implementation through the provisions on implementation, including those on international co-operation and technological assistance. The subsequent to the Regional Seas protocols on land-based sources of pollution are in accordance with GPA’s mandate also contain provisions requiring applying Cleaner Production. The Contracting Parties are required, inter alia, to define pollution prevention criteria, promote environmental education and awareness on the need to prevent pollution, and implement programs of technological and scientific assistance with a view to preventing pollution. Explanation of names: - “Ramsar” is the popular name for the convention on protection of wetlands (Ramsar is the city where the convention was launched. - CITES is the convention on protection of endangered species - CMS is the convention on marine species > 17 Regional Seas Conventions; > Global Program of Action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (GPA). ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 7 / 17

8 MAIN CLUSTERS Atmosphere / Wastes & chemicals
MEAs aimed at protection of the ATMOSPHERE from pollutants. > Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer; > UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the linked Kyoto Protocol. > UNFCCC MEAs dealing with hazardous WASTES & CHEMICAL pollution. > Basel Convention > Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal; > Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade; > Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Slide 8 – MEA clusters on Atmosphere / Waste & chemicals Several agreements of the cluster on atmosphere encourage Cleaner Production, including the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Under the Montreal Protocol, Cleaner Production strategies for safer alternatives are a cornerstone of compliance with the control measures to eliminate ozone-depleting substances. The Protocol requires information exchange on “possible alternatives to controlled substances, to products containing such substances, and to products manufactured with them”. Parties are also required to ensure transfer to the Parties in the need for assistance “the best available, environmentally safe substitutes and related technologies”. Implementation of the Protocol involved practical application of Cleaner Production, including UNIDO assistance in technology transfer and training on Cleaner Production. The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change – one of the most far-reaching agreements on environment and sustainable development affecting all sectors of the society – also strongly encourages Cleaner Production. It sets out the goals of reducing emission of the greenhouse gases that, without compromising economic or social needs, can be only achieved via Cleaner Production-based “win-win” strategies. The Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) will provide credit for financing emissions-reducing or emissions-avoiding projects in developing countries, and can become an efficient vehicle for transferring clean technologies and Cleaner Production practices. The MEA in the cluster on chemicals and hazardous waste are all dealing with management of pollution and are directly relevant to Cleaner Production. The main treaties of the cluster are the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). These Conventions are complemented by a number of other legal documents and regional agreements. The Basel and Stockholm Convention are the most relevant to Cleaner Production treaties, both contain strong language on Cleaner Production. Those conventions are in details covered in the section 3 and 4 respectively of the present training kit. The Rotterdam Convention aims to contribute to environmentally sound use of chemicals. Thus, the treaty’s requirements on information exchange cover certain aspects of Cleaner Production, such as safer alternatives to the hazardous chemicals; cleaner technology, and developing infrastructure to manage chemicals throughout their life cycle. The overview demonstrates that Cleaner Production is relevant to all Conventions of the cluster and, therefore, could not only contribute to the goals of each treaty, but also enhance synergies among them. > Stockholm Convention 3 MEAs with direct relevance to industrial activities. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 8 / 17

9 ORGANISATION From negotiation to ratification
How are MEA’s developed ? > A negotiation process between countries involved; > Often initiated and facilitated/moderated by UNEP; > Resulting in a mutual agreed and signed protocol during a high-level tailored conference. How do MEAs come into force ? > Initial agreement (international legal instrument) are signed between the signatories (states); > MEAs include provision on number of ratification from signatories needed to come into force; > Once a country (or “Party”) ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes an MEA, it is subject to the provisions under the MEA. Slide 9 - From negotiation to ratification Development of MEA are time consuming. They are often triggered by concerned scientists that show initial evidence of the scale of the problem and policy debates. UNEP has often had a crucial role in bringing international consensus on the need to address the problems through MEA. Countries normally become bound by the rules of the convention through the following process: The country signs the convention, often by a government representative. This signals the intention of the country to become a member but is not yet binding for the country. Then the Parliament (or equal elected body) of the country ratifies (approves the signing of) the convention, at what time the rules of the convention in principle becomes binding for the country. However, in most MEAs a minimum number of countries have to ratify the convention before it comes into effect. The Kyoto protocol is an outstanding example, where the convention was launched in 1997, was signed and ratified by a majority of countries by 1999, but only came into effect in 2005 when Russia ratified the protocol, bringing the amount of GHG emissions covered by the parties to the convention above a defined threshold for the convention to come into effect. From initial agreement (signatories) towards legal binding commitment (ratification): ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 9 / 17

10 ORGANISATION Key concepts Non-binding instruments
“ Set out important issues and priorities, foster discussion and attention, and stimulate new thinking and development of legally binding instruments. ” Legally binding instruments “ Sets commitments in form of legally binding targets and time-tables. ” Slide 10 - Key concepts Distinguish the difference of non-binding and legally binding instruments – followed in the next slide by how to enforce legally binding instruments MEAs are seeking to change the behavior of target groups - for instance, traders of endangered species or generators of hazardous wastes - leading to improvement in state of environment. Most of the core MEAs are legally-binding agreements, but there are non-binding, so called “soft law”, instruments (e.g. Global Program of Actions for Protecting Marine Environment from Land-Based Sources of Pollution). Non-biding instruments help to set out priorities and sometimes lead to development of consequent legally-binding MEAs. MEAs are not self-executing abut are implemented via national legislation and regulatory measures. It is important to appreciate the meaning and difference of three key concepts pertaining to MEAs: implementation of a MEAs is “a long term process of converting international commitments into national level action and behavioral change of target groups, i.e. those actors causing the problem in question”. It means that to implement MEAs, Parties have to adopt their national legislation and undertake specific programs and activities. Sometimes there may not be adequate resources to do so. Compliance with treaties refers to whether the countries in fact adhere to the agreements provisions and to the implementing measures that they have implemented, including procedural measures (e.g. national reporting) and substantive measures (e.g. actual elimination of POPs). Some MEAs cover complex activities that make monitoring and measuring compliance extremely difficult. In such cases, achieving compliance is a matter of developing self-implementing rules and incentives, because it is hard or virtually impossible to enforce compliance with such MEAs. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 10 / 17

> Converting international commitments into national measures. COMPLIANCE > Countries adhere to the agreement provisions and undertake implementation measures (e.g. national reporting). ENFORCEMENT > Formal (national or international) procedures and actions by which compliance is compelled or noncompliance deterred. Slide 11 – How do MEAs work ? Highlight especially the translation of MEA’s into national measures (and national legislation) 1- IMPLEMENTATION Process of converting international commitments and requirements into effective national measures (at least law and policy) in order to induce behavioral change of target groups, i.e. those actors causing the problem in question. 2- COMPLIANCE Refers to whether the countries adhere to the agreement provisions and undertake implementation measures, including procedural measures (e.g. national reporting). 3- ENFORCEMENT Formal (national or international) procedures and actions by which compliance is compelled or noncompliance deterred. 4- EFFECTIVENESS Whether a MEA resolves a problem that caused its creation. Depending on, among others the broadness of the focus of the MEA, consensus amongst major players (related to the implication of requested changing of behavior) and existence of implementation tools and financial mechanisms. The ‘weakest’ point of MEA’ is its limited power of enforcement; While countries do commit themselves when ratifying an MEA to meet certain goals set out in the MEA it is not always possible to translate these commitments to action at the national level. There are then two problems to address: What can the national government do to take action to comply with the MEA, and what can the international community do to put pressure on the national government to comply? International law leaves very limited options for the international community to enforce MEA, and most MEA are based on the assumptions that parties to the convention will do their outmost to meet their commitments. In some (rare) cases trade measures are taken to “punish” a country for not following the rules of the convention they have ratified. Effectiveness of MEA’s is quite diverse, often depending on the existence of adequate measures / alternatives to comply with the targets, the implementation tools (does not require always regulatory but very important also financial !). A good example is the Montreal Protocol: which is an MEA with a very focused objective, has clear alternatives available, and excellent financial mechanism with strong multilateral support. EFFECTIVENESS > Whether a MEA resolves a problem that caused its creation. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 11 / 17

12 ORGANISATION Institutional elements COP – Conference of Parties
> Decision-making body on implementation and development of MEAs. Secretariat > Support to COP (provided by an international organization). Executive and subsidiary bodies > Generally advisory in nature, report to COP on scientific, technical, or financial matters. Clearinghouses Slide 12 - Institutional elements Some common components of MEA: The Convention of the Parties (COP) is the membership of the MEA and is the body that ultimately takes all decisions about the MEA. They adopt the text of the convention and any amendment to the text. Each country that has ratified the convention has one vote. The secretariat to the convention manages the day-to-day business of th MEA and serves the COP with information about the implementation of the MEA. The executive and subsidiary bodies are usually assigned a specific task to work on (e.g. development of methodology to measure the implementation of certain commitments, or to manage specific funds, or technology transfer mechanisms). Clearinghouses are basically data bases on specific issues under the convention, usually designed to assist signatories to honour their commitments. Implementation actors at the national level are the authorities and other organizations that have been assigned responsibility to handle communication with the MEA, or to fill other national level functions defined by the MEA (e.g. to collect national data to measure the implementation of the MEA). More detailed information for specific MEAs are presented later in the training package, and provided as part of the hand-outs. > Facilitate exchange of information (websites, databases, etc.). Implementation actors on national level > Represented by the national authorities and/or institutions, training and information centers. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 12 / 17

13 ORGANISATION Financial mechanisms Regime budgets
> Mandatory or voluntary trust funds administered by the Secretariats; > Proposed by Parties and approved by the COP. Development assistance > Funds provided via foundations (e.g. UN Foundation), bilateral arrangements, private sector donors and NGOs. > World Bank. Slide 13 - Financial mechanisms Providing financial resources to strengthening capacity of Parties to meet their obligations and commitments a high priority in most MEAs. MEAs also have to finance the operation of their secretariats, programmes of work, special projects and other activities. The funds are usually administered by the international organisations that also host the MEA secretariates. Budgets are often proposed by the parties to the convention, collated by the secretariat, and approved by the COP. Financing of MEAs implementation is mainly accomplished via traditionally mandatory and voluntary trust funds financed via contributions by Parties. However those voluntary pledges are often not materializing in real funds, why other forms of financing are also becoming more common. Other mechanisms for financing include traditional sources of development assistance, modern financial mechanisms (e.g. earmarked soft loans), and so called “assessed contributions”, Some MEAs have developed their own mechanism for financing implementation. For example, the Kyoto Protocol includes the so called “Flexible mechanisms”, including the Clean Development Mechanism, the Joint Implementation and Emission Trading. These mechanism raise funds for assistance to the other countries through cooperative project activities and through trading of emission reduction certificates (more about this in the following modules). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the principal financial mechanism for several MEAs, e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity or the Stockholm Convention. It provides co-funding to developing countries and countries with economies in transition for project activities targeting global benefits in one or more of its focal areas: biodiversity, climate change, international waters, ozone layer protection, and POPs. The World Bank, UNDP and UNEP serve as implementing agencies for GEF. Funding of the GEF is non-conditioned and for countries with a GNP of below USD 400 per capita only. GEF funds only incremental costs of existing projects with the global benefits. The "incremental" or additional costs associated with transforming a project with national benefits into one with global environmental benefits. For example, choosing solar energy technology over coal or diesel fuel meets the same national development goal (power generation), but is more costly. GEF grants cover the difference or "increment" between a less costly, more polluting option and a costlier, more environmentally friendly option. GEF is a principal financial mechanism for the Stockholm Convention and will be discussed in more details in the section 3. Project Eligibility for GEF - Country-driven and endorsed by host Governments - Produce identifiable global benefits - Participation of all affected groups and transparency - Consistency with the Conventions - Posses strong scientific and technical merit - Financially sustainable and cost-effective - Include process for monitoring, evaluation and incorporation of lessons learned - Play catalytic role that leverages other financing Global Environment Facility (GEF) > A co-financing mechanism to address global environmental issues; > GEF focal areas : biodiversity, climate change, international waters, ozone depletion, POPs, land degradation. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 13 / 17

14   IMPLEMENTATION Strengths & weaknesses of MEA’s STRENGTHS
> Joint strategy to deal with global issues; > Clearly defines who should do what; > Conflict settlement instruments; > Provides increased attention to preventive - precautionary approach. WEAKNESSES > Lack of synergy among MEAs; > Inadequate funding for many MEAs; > Lack of performance indicators; > Inadequate coordination among MEA’s at national level; > No international enforcement mechanisms in most MEAs. Slide 14 - Strengths and weaknesses of MEAs In order to understand how Cleaner Production can improve effectiveness of MEAs, it is important to understand their current weaknesses and strengths. Weaknesses (These are the generic and global weaknesses, each MEA has its specific weaknesses, and also each country has its own problems and barriers): > Lack of cooperation among MEAs. Despite to the large number of existing MEAs, the desirable level of global environmental protection has not been achieved. Many MEAs have overlapping objectives and requirements, but often they work in isolation from each other and wider national policy framework, lack effective means of coordinating information and activities, or even simply communicating, with other actors. Finding synergies among MEAs, including synergies in capacity building efforts, scientific research, reporting requirements, data collection, etc, is the main task that global environmental governance is currently facing. > Lack of coordination of MEAs at national level. Often a country is a party to numerous MEAs, but does not have capabilities and resources to implement them successfully. The implementation of some conventions is often spread out among different national institutions, sometimes resulting in conflicting priorities in national governments, and human and financial resources are often inadequate for implementation. > Inadequate compliance and enforcement. Often MEAs are lacking mechanisms for monitoring and verification of compliance, and for enforcement of law. Compliance depends on a nation’s capability and willingness to comply, and a nation cannot be forced to follow environmental requirements unless it decides to do so itself. That is why more than ever attention is needed to providing positive incentives for compliance, ensure appropriate financiing, access to technical expertsise and skills within nations. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 14 / 17

15 IMPLEMENTATION How to strengthen MEAs ?
How to overcome the perceived weaknesses ? > More integrated application for specific targets groups (e.g. industry); > Utilization of other concepts/methodologies (e.g. Cleaner Production). How can Cleaner Production contribute to MEAs ? > Wider use of prevention as the strategy of environmental protection; > Issue linkage and providing positive incentives for compliance and implementation of MEAs; > Strengthening synergies among MEAs; > Adding flexibility to the agreements. Slide 15 – How to strengthen MEAs ? A slide to make the bridge to the next modules. In the next modules firstly a more in-depth insight will be given in specific MEAs. Followed by the idea to work towards an integrated application of MEAs, especially towards the industry as a main actor, and utilization of other concepts (e.g Applying Cleaner Production to enhance the implementation of specific MEA’s ! The key objective of this training package). What Cleaner Production can do? Cleaner Production and global environmental governance share a common goal of protecting environment and sustainable development. Cleaner Production as a strategy for implementing MEAs has potential to facilitate the following: Use of prevention as a best strategy for effective MEAs. Notion that prevention is better than cure is fully applicable to global environmental protection. Cleaner Production as a strategy for practical application of the precautionary principle, is of key importance for the implementation of international agreements, especially those incorporating precautionary principle. Preventative approach embodied in Cleaner Production can help to reach objectives of most, if not all, MEAs, ranging from conventions on chemicals to the biodiversity-related treaties. Prevention of environment from hazardous wastes and chemicals, for example, is in the best way reached via prevention of generation of wastes and emissions in the first place, rather than through clean-up efforts and measures to regulate their disposal. The best way to minimize losses of biodiversity is to prevent unsustainable use of natural resources via changing consumption and production patterns, rather than via attempts to restore disrupted ecosystems. Issue linkage. The costs of compliance with the MEAs are often the main disincentive for Parties to implement the treaties. Indeed, when implementing MEAs relies mainly on the end-of-pipe solutions, associated high costs of abatement technologies and administrative costs can hamper economic development. Increased use of Cleaner Production strategies for implementing MEAs would provide national and sub-national actors with important, presently often missing, positive incentives to work toward MEAs goals, because Cleaner Production, as a multi-benefit strategy, links environmental issues and development/economic needs. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 15 / 17

16 IMPLEMENTATION What can Cleaner Production do ?
What are the advantages of cross-cutting capacity building activities of Cleaner Production initiatives and MEAs ? > Policy advice; > Technical and financial assistance; > Assessment and management of pollution; > Education and awareness; > Information exchange; > Strengthened participation of all stakeholders in the decision-making; > International partnership. Slide 16 - What Cleaner Production can do? Implementation of most of the MEAs requires conducting a number of activities aimed at capacity building of Parties to implement international agreements: policy advice, technical and financial assistance, education and awareness, information exchange, strengthening stakeholders dialogue, and international partnership. Most of the existing Cleaner Production initiatives, in their turn, conduct similar activities with the aim to built capacities worldwide to apply preventative strategies. As the most of MEAs and Cleaner Production share the same goal and tackle the cross-cutting issue of managing pollution, it is very logical to link also the cross-cutting capacity building activities under MEAs and Cleaner Production initiatives on capacity building. That will allow the most efficient use of limited resources available for environmental protection. ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 16 / 17

17 Thank you for your attention… Any questions?
CONCLUSION End of session 3 Thank you for your attention… Any questions? ACME - Session 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements - 17 / 17

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