Environmental Management: Country Context Minerals resources for revenue 70% dependent on agriculture Huge dependence on natural resources- huge environmental effects Sectoral not integrated approach to environmental management Little coordination between ministries Exploitation not sustainable management.
STATUS OF MEAS Sierra Leone has ratified/acceded to 32 relevant MEAS Has signed but not ratified 10 e.g. Bamako Convention, African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent IUU Fishing Should consider joining 4 more e.g. Rotterdam Convention, Basel Convention, Mercury Convention
Some Important MEAS Sierra Leone has joined Convention on Biodiversity Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification International Convention on the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water. Protocol to the Convention on Prevention of Marine Pollution by dumping wastes and other matters. Montreal Protocol on substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Control.
IMPLEMENTATION : ISSUES/CHALLENGES Lack of financial, technical, human and institutional capacity for effective implementation Little Domestication or Incorporation of MEAs Poor Enforcement: Police/Judiciary Lack of legal capacity Lack of scientific capacity to effectively implement MEAS and for environmental monitoring Low awareness among policymakers and public about environmental issues Poverty Low levels of participation
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Control What SL has done to implement Ensures that ships flying SL flag have onboard oil pollution emergency plans. Oil prospecting units must have oil pollution emergency plans What hasn’t been done National Authorities don’t have oil pollution emergency plans. No national system for responding to oil pollution incidents. No oil spill equipment or programmes
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants What SL has done to Implement National Implementation Plan for fulfilling obligations developed. NIP has evaluated releases of POPs and efficacy of laws and policies. What hasn’t been done No regulatory mechanisms for importing, exporting or distributing pesticides. No measures to reduce total releases from anthropogenic sources No capacity to manage POP stockpiles in environmentally sound manner.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification What SL has done to implement Formulated national action plan which addresses the physical and socioeconomic causes of desertification and designs appropriate interventions. Has integrated strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification. What hasn’t been done No laws enacted to incorporate provisions
International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti fouling Systems on Ships What SL has done to implement Ban in place on hazardous anti fouling paints. Administrative guidelines based on convention What hasn’t been done No legislation enacted No penalties for use of harmful anti fouling systems.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer What SL has done to Implement Protocol incorporated into legislation Restrictions on import/export of CFCs Establishes penalties for violations.
MEAs: THE FUTURE Requisite Capacity Crucial Available Resources Political will Value placed on environment/natural resources Enacting and enforcing environmental laws Make better use of financial and technical mechanisms provided by some MEAs