 # Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography-RSA Encryption

## Presentation on theme: "Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography-RSA Encryption"— Presentation transcript:

Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography-RSA Encryption
Michael A. Karls Ball State University

The RSA Encryption Scheme
We now look at the public key cryptography scheme developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) in 1977. In order to understand this scheme, we need some definitions!

Definition of Divisor Let a and b be integers, with b  0. We say that b divides a or b is a divisor of a if a = b x c for some integer c. Notation: b|a Example 1: 3|24 since 24 = 3 x 8. Divisors of 12 are: -12, -6, -4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12

Definition of Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)
Let a and b be integers, not both zero. The greatest common divisor (GCD) of a and b is the largest integer that divides both a and b. Notation: (a,b) Example 2: Divisors of 6: -6, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 6 Divisors of 8: -8, -4, -2, -1, 1, 2, 4, 8 Thus, (6,8) = 2 Since the divisors of 7 are -7, -1, 1, 7, (7,8) = 1.

Definition of Relatively Prime
Two integers whose GCD is 1 are said to be relatively prime. Example 3: Since (7,8) = 1, 7 and 8 are relatively prime.

Definition of Prime Number
A positive integer p is said to be prime if p>1 and the only positive divisors of p are 1 and p. Example 4: 2, 3, and 7 are prime. 6, 8, 10, 100 are not prime (composite).

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!)
Step 1: Alice chooses two huge prime numbers p and q. Note: Alice keeps p and q secret! Example 5: p = 47 and q = 59.

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!) (cont.)
Step 2: Alice computes N = p x q. Then she computes k = (p-1)(q-1). Finally, she chooses an integer e such that 1<e<N and (e,k) =1. Example 5 (cont.): N = 47 x 59 = 2773. k = 46 x 58 = 2668. e = 17. Choice of e is o.k., since 1<17<2773 and (17,2668)= 1.

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!) (cont.)
Step 3: Alice computes d = e-1 mod k. Alice publishes her public key: N, e. Alice keeps secret her private key: p, q, d, k. Example 5 (cont.): d = 17-1 mod 2668 = 157. Alice’s public key: N = 2773; e = 17. Alice’s private key: p = 47; q = 59; d = 157; k = 2668.

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!) (cont.)
Step 4: Suppose Bob wants to send a message to Alice. To do so, he looks up Alice’s public key, converts the message into numbers M<N. Example 5 (cont.): Plaintext is HELLO HELLO  HE LL O_ Assign 00space; 01A; 02B, … , 26Z (or use ASCII). ¨Plaintext Plain # HE 0805 LL 1212 0_ 1500

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!) (cont.)
Step 4 (cont.): Next Bob computes: C = Me mod N (1) for each plaintext number M to get ciphertext number C. Example 5 (cont.): mod 2773 = 542. mod 2773 = 2345. mod 2773 = 2417. Encrypted message is

RSA Scheme (with Alice and Bob!) (cont.)
Step 5: Bob s Alice the encrypted message. To decrypt, Alice uses her private key and computes: M = Cd mod N (2) Example 5 (cont.): mod 2773 = 805. mod 2773 = 1212. mod 2773 = 1500. Decrypted message is HE LL 0_.