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8: Network Security8-1 Symmetric key cryptography symmetric key crypto: Bob and Alice share know same (symmetric) key: K r e.g., key is knowing substitution pattern in mono alphabetic substitution cipher r Q: how do Bob and Alice agree on key value? plaintext ciphertext K A-B encryption algorithm decryption algorithm A-B K plaintext message, m K (m) A-B K (m) A-B m = K ( ) A-B

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8: Network Security8-2 Symmetric key crypto: DES DES: Data Encryption Standard r US encryption standard [NIST 1993] r 56-bit symmetric key, 64-bit plaintext input r How secure is DES? m DES Challenge: 56-bit-key-encrypted phrase (“Strong cryptography makes the world a safer place”) decrypted (brute force) in 4 months m no known “backdoor” decryption approach r making DES more secure: m use three keys sequentially (3-DES) on each datum m use cipher-block chaining

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8: Network Security8-3 Symmetric key crypto: DES initial permutation 16 identical “rounds” of function application, each using different 48 bits of key final permutation DES operation

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8: Network Security8-4 AES: Advanced Encryption Standard r new (Nov. 2001) symmetric-key NIST standard, replacing DES r processes data in 128 bit blocks r 128, 192, or 256 bit keys r brute force decryption (try each key) taking 1 sec on DES, takes 149 trillion years for AES

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8: Network Security8-5 Public Key Cryptography symmetric key crypto r requires sender, receiver know shared secret key r Q: how to agree on key in first place (particularly if never “met”)? public key cryptography r radically different approach [Diffie- Hellman76, RSA78] r sender, receiver do not share secret key r public encryption key known to all r private decryption key known only to receiver

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8: Network Security8-6 Public key cryptography plaintext message, m ciphertext encryption algorithm decryption algorithm Bob’s public key plaintext message K (m) B + K B + Bob’s private key K B - m = K ( K (m) ) B + B -

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8: Network Security8-7 Public key encryption algorithms need K ( ) and K ( ) such that B B.. given public key K, it should be impossible to compute private key K B B Requirements: 1 2 RSA: Rivest, Shamir, Adelson algorithm + - K (K (m)) = m B B - + + -

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8: Network Security8-8 RSA: Choosing keys 1. Choose two large prime numbers p, q. (e.g., 1024 bits each) 2. Compute n = pq, z = (p-1)(q-1) 3. Choose e (with e<n) that has no common factors with z. (e, z are “relatively prime”). 4. Choose d such that ed-1 is exactly divisible by z. (in other words: ed mod z = 1 ). 5. Public key is (n,e). Private key is (n,d). K B + K B -

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8: Network Security8-9 RSA: Encryption, decryption 0. Given (n,e) and (n,d) as computed above 1. To encrypt bit pattern, m, compute c = m mod n e (i.e., remainder when m is divided by n) e 2. To decrypt received bit pattern, c, compute m = c mod n d (i.e., remainder when c is divided by n) d m = (m mod n) e mod n d Magic happens! c

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8: Network Security8-10 RSA example: Bob chooses p=5, q=7. Then n=35, z=24. e=5 (so e, z relatively prime). d=29 (so ed-1 exactly divisible by z. letter m m e c = m mod n e l 12 1524832 17 c m = c mod n d 17 481968572106750915091411825223071697 12 c d letter l encrypt: decrypt:

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8: Network Security8-11 RSA: Why is that m = (m mod n) e mod n d (m mod n) e mod n = m mod n d ed Useful number theory result: If p,q prime and n = pq, then: x mod n = x mod n yy mod (p-1)(q-1) = m mod n ed mod (p-1)(q-1) = m mod n 1 = m (using number theory result above) (since we chose ed to be divisible by (p-1)(q-1) with remainder 1 )

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8: Network Security8-12 RSA: another important property The following property will be very useful later: K ( K (m) ) = m B B - + K ( K (m) ) B B + - = use public key first, followed by private key use private key first, followed by public key Result is the same!

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8: Network Security8-13 Public Key Algorithm r public key algorithm based on mathematical functions. m uses asymmetric cryptography involving use of 2 separate keys m there are 6 ingredients; m 1. plaintext- input(readable message or data) that is fed into the algorithm. m 2. encryption algorithm- perform various transformations of the plaintext. m 3. public and private key- pair of keys selected and one is used for encryption and the other for decryption. m 4. Ciphertext- the scrambled message produced as output. Depends on plaintext and the keys. Two different keys will produce two different cipher text. m 5. decryption algorithm- accepts ciphertext and matching key and produce original plaintext that was given initially.

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8: Network Security8-14 Public Key Algorithm r essential steps that will be taken: m 1. User generating pair of keys used for encryption and decryption m 2. One key placed in public register/accessible file. The other key is kept private. m 3. If A wishes to send message to B, A encrypts message using B’s public key. m 4. B upon receiving message, decrypts using own private key m 5. All users have access to public key but private key generated locally. m sample public key cryptography

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