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Chapter 43 Self-Concept.  Self-concept is an individual’s perception of self and is what helps make each individual unique.  Positive and negative self-assessments.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 43 Self-Concept.  Self-concept is an individual’s perception of self and is what helps make each individual unique.  Positive and negative self-assessments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 43 Self-Concept

2  Self-concept is an individual’s perception of self and is what helps make each individual unique.  Positive and negative self-assessments in the physical, emotional, intellectual, and functional dimensions change over time.  Self-concept affects the ability to function and greatly influences health status.

3 Dimensions of Self-Concept  Self-knowledge — “Who am I?”  Self-expectation — “Who or what do I want to be?”  Social self – How person perceived by others?  Self-evaluation — “How well do I like myself?”

4 Self knowledge  Global self: is the term used to describe the composite of all basic facts, qualities, traits, images and feelings one holds about oneself.  It includes: 1.Basic facts: sex, age, race, occupation, cultural background, sexual orientation 2.Person’s position with social groups 3.Qualities or traits that describe typical behaviours, feelings, moods and other characteristics (generous, hot-headed, ambitious, intelligent, sexy

5 Self expectations  Expectations for self flow from various sources.  The ideal self constitutes the self one want to be.  Self expectations develop unconsciously early in childhood and are based on image of role models such as parents

6 Self evaluation  Self esteem is the evaluative and affective component of self concept  Maslow’s Subsets of Esteem Needs: 1.Self-esteem (strength, achievement, mastery, competence,..) 2.Respect needs or the need for esteem from others

7 Components of Self-Concept  Identity  Body image  Self-esteem  Role performance

8 Interrelationship of Components of Self-Concept

9 Components of Self-Concept  A sense of personal identity is what sets one person apart as a unique individual.  Identity includes a person’s name, gender, ethnic identity, family status, occupation, and roles.  One’s personal identity begins to develop during childhood and is constantly reinforced and modified throughout life.

10 Components of Self-Concept  Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance.  Body image is dynamic because any change in body structure or function, including the normal changes of growth and development, can affect it.

11 Components of Self-Concept  Self-Ideal is the perception of behavior based on personal standards and self- expectations.  Self-ideal serves as an internal regulator to support self-respect and self-esteem.

12 Components of Self-Concept  Self-esteem is the judgment of personal performance compared with the self- ideal.  Self-esteem is derived from a sense of giving and receiving love, and being respected by others.

13 Components of Self-Concept  Role refers to a set of expected behaviors determined by familial, cultural, and social norms.  The level of self-esteem is dependent upon the self-perception of adequate role performance in these various social roles.

14 Components of Self-Concept  Stressors Affecting Role Performance -Role overload -Role conflict Whenever a person is unable to fulfill role responsibilities, self-concept is impaired.

15 Development of Self-Concept  Self-concept evolves throughout life and depends to an extent on an individual’s developmental level.

16 Formation of Self-Concept 1.Infant learns physical self different from environment. 2.If basic needs are met, child has positive feelings of self. 3.Child internalizes others people’s attitudes toward self. 4.Child or adult internalizes standards of society.

17 Stages in Development of Self  Self-awareness (infancy)  Self-recognition (18 months)  Self-definition (3 years)  Self-concept (6 to 7 years)

18 Factors Affecting Self-Concept  Altered Health Status  Experience  Developmental considerations  Culture  Internal and external resources  History of success and failure  Crisis or life stressors  Aging, illness, or trauma

19 Assessment  Assess the client’s strengths to be used as a foundation on which to build therapeutic interventions. Maintain appropriate relationships Care for self in order to meet basic needs Adapt to stressors in a positive manner

20 Nursing Diagnoses  Disturbed Body Image  Parental Role Conflict  Disturbed Personal Identity  Ineffective Role Performance  Chronic Low Self-Esteem  Situational Low Self-Esteem

21  Disturbed Personal Identity  Anxiety  Social Isolation  Hopelessness  Powerlessness Nursing Diagnoses

22  Initiate Therapeutic Interaction  Support Healthy Defense Mechanisms  Ensure Satisfaction of Needs Physical needs Psychosocial needs Implementation

23 Helping Patients Maintain Sense of Self  Communicate worth with looks, speech, and judicious touch.  Acknowledge patient status, role, and individuality.  Speak to patient respectfully.  Offer simple explanations for procedures.  Move patient’s body respectfully if necessary.  Respect patient’s privacy and sensibilities.  Acknowledge and allow expression of negative feelings.  Help patients recognize strengths and explore alternatives.


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