2Self-ConceptSelf-concept is an individual’s perception of self and is what helps make each individual unique.Positive and negative self-assessments in the physical, emotional, intellectual, and functional dimensions change over time.Self-concept affects the ability to function and greatly influences health status.
3Dimensions of Self-Concept Self-knowledge — “Who am I?”Self-expectation — “Who or what do I want to be?”Social self – How person perceived by others?Self-evaluation — “How well do I like myself?”
4Self knowledgeGlobal self: is the term used to describe the composite of all basic facts, qualities, traits, images and feelings one holds about oneself.It includes:Basic facts: sex, age, race, occupation, cultural background, sexual orientationPerson’s position with social groupsQualities or traits that describe typical behaviours, feelings, moods and other characteristics (generous, hot-headed , ambitious, intelligent, sexy
5Self expectations Expectations for self flow from various sources. The ideal self constitutes the self one want to be.Self expectations develop unconsciously early in childhood and are based on image of role models such as parents
6Self evaluationSelf esteem is the evaluative and affective component of self conceptMaslow’s Subsets of Esteem Needs:Self-esteem (strength, achievement, mastery, competence, ..)Respect needs or the need for esteem from others
7Components of Self-Concept IdentityBody imageSelf-esteemRole performance
9Components of Self-Concept A sense of personal identity is what sets one person apart as a unique individual.Identity includes a person’s name, gender, ethnic identity, family status, occupation, and roles.One’s personal identity begins to develop during childhood and is constantly reinforced and modified throughout life.
10Components of Self-Concept Body image is an attitude about one’s physical attributes and characteristics, appearance, and performance.Body image is dynamic because any change in body structure or function, including the normal changes of growth and development, can affect it.
11Components of Self-Concept Self-Ideal is the perception of behavior based on personal standards and self-expectations.Self-ideal serves as an internal regulator to support self-respect and self-esteem.
12Components of Self-Concept Self-esteem is the judgment of personal performance compared with the self-ideal.Self-esteem is derived from a sense of giving and receiving love, and being respected by others.
13Components of Self-Concept Role refers to a set of expected behaviors determined by familial, cultural, and social norms.The level of self-esteem is dependent upon the self-perception of adequate role performance in these various social roles.
14Components of Self-Concept Stressors Affecting Role PerformanceRole overloadRole conflictWhenever a person is unable to fulfill role responsibilities, self-concept is impaired.
15Development of Self-Concept Self-concept evolves throughout life and depends to an extent on an individual’s developmental level.
16Formation of Self-Concept Infant learns physical self different from environment.If basic needs are met, child has positive feelings of self.Child internalizes others people’s attitudes toward self.Child or adult internalizes standards of society.
17Stages in Development of Self Self-awareness (infancy)Self-recognition (18 months)Self-definition (3 years)Self-concept (6 to 7 years)
18Factors Affecting Self-Concept Altered Health StatusExperienceDevelopmental considerationsCultureInternal and external resourcesHistory of success and failureCrisis or life stressorsAging, illness, or trauma
19AssessmentAssess the client’s strengths to be used as a foundation on which to build therapeutic interventions.Maintain appropriate relationshipsCare for self in order to meet basic needsAdapt to stressors in a positive manner
20Nursing Diagnoses Disturbed Body Image Parental Role Conflict Disturbed Personal IdentityIneffective Role PerformanceChronic Low Self-EsteemSituational Low Self-Esteem
21Nursing Diagnoses Disturbed Personal Identity Anxiety Social Isolation HopelessnessPowerlessness
22Implementation Initiate Therapeutic Interaction Support Healthy Defense MechanismsEnsure Satisfaction of NeedsPhysical needsPsychosocial needs
23Helping Patients Maintain Sense of Self Communicate worth with looks, speech, and judicious touch.Acknowledge patient status, role, and individuality.Speak to patient respectfully.Offer simple explanations for procedures.Move patient’s body respectfully if necessary.Respect patient’s privacy and sensibilities.Acknowledge and allow expression of negative feelings.Help patients recognize strengths and explore alternatives.