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Urbanisation in LEDC.

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Presentation on theme: "Urbanisation in LEDC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urbanisation in LEDC

2 Life in Nairobi for the Poor Kibera – Africa’s Biggest Slum

3 Why? Why would people move from rural to urban areas in LEDC’s?

4 Push / Pull Factors

5 Conditions for The Poor
Many newcomers to Nairobi arrive with no ____ and are forced to live in a squatter ______ on the _______ of the city. Squatter settlements are illegal towns built out of basic _________. They often don’t have _______, medical facilities, sewers and running ______ facilities. WORD BANK: WATER EDGE MATERIALS SCHOOLS JOB SETTLEMENT

6 Kibera Kibera is situated 7 km South West of Nairobi City Centre.
With a population of over 1 million it is the largest squatter settlement in Africa. A squatter settlement is an unplanned settlement built by the inhabitants. The land Kibera is built on is owned by the government meaning it is illegal

7 Kibera Fact Box Largest slum in Kenya
60% of the people that live in Nairobi live in slums Between 800,000 and 1 million people live in Kibera 255 ha (around the size of 255 football pitches) Extremely high population density 1 meter of floor space per person There are around 100,000 orphans – this is due in part to the AIDS epidemic in Kibera Learning for Life

8 Kibera – Africa’s Biggest slum.
Imagine you are the boy in the photo. Write 10 words to describe what Conditions are like in Kibera

9 Videos! Documentary video
Women in Kibera Problems with sanitation

10 Social, Economic and Environmental problems in Kibera
Task: Draw a selection of diagrams or one large diagram featuring the problems faced in Kibera.

11 Housing in Kibera No preparation for these houses so No sanitation
No piped water No road access No electricity (legally) The houses are built from any available material Corrugated iron Card board Learning for Life

12 Housing in Kibera Paths between houses are irregular, narrow and often have ditches running down the middle that have sewage in Smell = Charcoal and human waste One pipe may provide 40 inhabitants Private companies own hosepipes- they then charge double than he standard rate for water Individuals homes are kept very clean and residents welcome visitors Learning for Life

13 Living Conditions The shanties only provide basic accommodation!
Very crowded! One or two rooms Sleeping on the floor No toilet Little public transport No street lighting Crime is rife! -Vigilante groups offer security at a high price -Police are reluctant to enter these zones Rubbish is not collected = disease and filth Good community spirit Learning for Life

14 Life in Kibera Poorly paid jobs Work/ money is unreliable
QOL is poor (due to housing and environment) Crime is a problem Children do not go to school No privacy Disease Lack of money- so cant improve their housing conditions Most jobs are in the informal sector- that means that the jobs are not regular or reliable and people do not pay taxes! (Can a government pay to improve an area when they are getting no money from tax?) Learning for Life

15 Social, Economic and Environmental Problems
Population density is high Jobs are mainly in the informal sector ie. Jobs are illegal, and low paid No safe rubbish disposal so rubbish is dumped and can contaminate water supplies Housing provision – mainly built from poor quality materials ie corrugated iron roofs, mud, bricks Unskilled and low paid workers who may be stuck living in Kibera Sanitation runs into streams and rivers which are used for drinking Small houses which accommodate 6+ people Residents tap into electricity supplies to gain free electricity – unsafe and costly to supplier No clean safe water supply so waterborne diseases eg. cholera and typhoid are common, leading to a low life expectancy No healthcare, sanitation, education provision Pollution is high due to the amount of rubbish that is dumped by inhabitants High crime and rape rates – unsafe for women at night

16 Solutions? Make peoples homes permanent! Low cost flats!
770 families rehoused! Inhabitants used involved in the planning Running water , toilets, electricity Small, but bigger than the shanties! Less crime Gives people pride in themselves and their community Funded by the govt, charities and private loans! Make peoples homes permanent! People have no right to the land that their shanty is built on- the government can come at any time and move them on- so people do not see the point in spending time and effort in improving their shanties! If people knew that their shanties were permanent they would be worth investing in! Learning for Life

17 Self Help Schemes – Kibera
A charity has developed low-cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay Two main water pipes have been provided -one paid for by Kenyan govt- other by The World Bank. (improving sanitation will be much much harder! Medical facilities are provided by charities (training local people) Gap- year students encouraged Small scale businesses to help earn money Money generated put back in to local economy Learning for Life

18 Sites and Services Scheme
• Shanty town dwellers had to put their name down to go on the scheme • If chosen they agreed to go to evening classes at a college to learn construction skills • If they passed the exams they were given rented a small plot of land connected to running water sewerage and electricity • On this site the family can then build a house with building materials they are given.

19 Comparing high class and squatter residential areas

20 Squatter Settlements Population structure: Adults aged 21 – 30 account for 15% of the population of squatter settlements. This may be because young people have migrated to Nairobi from rural areas due to push/pull factors such as… . However, when they arrive, they struggle to find jobs, particularly if they are unskilled and have a low level of education, and so remain in squatter settlements

21 TASK: Look at the graph above and answer the following questions:
1) What is meant by urbanisation? (1 mark) 2) Identify the sub-regions with an urbanization growth rate over 3% (2 marks) 3) Use evidence from the graph to suggest why LEDCs have a higher urbanization growth than MEDCs (2 marks)

22 Exam Questions Explain one pressure resulting from a rising demand for urban living spaces. (2) Explain why many people in rural areas of the developing world wish to migrate to urban areas. (2) Explain why the population of some inner city areas has risen in recent years. (3)

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