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Body’s main source of energy.  Carbohydrates are produced through a process called photosynthesis  plants convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "Body’s main source of energy.  Carbohydrates are produced through a process called photosynthesis  plants convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Body’s main source of energy

2  Carbohydrates are produced through a process called photosynthesis  plants convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy

3  Requires carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll, and sunlight  Sunlight = energy  Chlorophyll – green pigment found only in plants  All carbohydrates in plants are produced into glucose

4  Carbohydrates are molecules composed of:  Carbon  Hydrogen  Oxygen

5  Basic structure is in a ring shape  Hydroxyl group: oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom bonded together  Symbol: -OH  Found in all carbohydrates  Part of organic alcohols


7  Sugar = saccharide  Monosaccharide's: sugar containing one basic molecule to form more complex carbohydrates  6 carbon  12 hydrogen  6 oxygen  Arrangement differs  Accounts for varying sweetness

8  Monosaccharide's include:  Glucose  Fructose  Galactose

9  Mild sweet flavor  Found in corn & grapes  Known as blood sugar  Essential energy source  Found in every disaccharide and polysaccharide

10  Sweetest sugar  Found in fruits and honey  Added to soft drinks, cereals, and desserts

11  Only found in animals & humans  One of the basic sugars in milk  Rarely found naturally as a single sugar

12  Disaccharides: pairs of monosaccharide's  Glucose is always present  2 nd of the pair is fructose, galactose, or another glucose  Put together by condensation  Taken apart by hydrolysis  Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose

13  Glucose + Fructose  Tastes sweet  Fruit, vegetables, grains  Table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beets  White powdered color

14  Glucose + Glucose  Less sweet  Produced when starch breaks down  In powder form: tan color

15  Glucose + Galactose  Main carbohydrate in milk  Known as milk sugar  Pure form: white

16  Making a disaccharide  Chemical reaction linking 2 monosaccharide’s  Hydroxyl group + hydrogen  Water molecule is a byproduct

17  Breaking down a disaccharide  Molecule is divided into smaller parts by adding water  Body uses process to digest disaccharides in food

18 Can be triggered by: 1. Presence of an enzyme  Used in digestion  Each sugar requires a different enzyme  Change –ose suffix to -ase 2. Addition of an acid 3. Addition of heat


20 1. Sugar cane  1 st discovered by Chinese  Granulated sugar  Confectioner’s sugar  Molasses  Byproduct of sugar refining  Brown sugar  Either stop refining process before all the molasses is removed  Or adding molasses to granulated sugar *tip – add a slice of bread, apple slices, or piece of lettuce to hardened brown sugar!

21 2. Sugar beets  Powdered sugar, granulated sugar, and brown sugar  Cheaper costs! 3. Maple syrup  40 gallons tree sap = one gallon of maple syrup  Most pancake/waffle syrups are only 2% maple syrup or less  Use corn syrup instead

22 4. Corn syrup  Processed by hydrolyzing cornstarch into glucose 5. Honey  1 st sweetener in food preparation 6. Isomalt  Does not form crystals  Blown and spun into sugar creations


24 1. Sweeteners  Connected to molecular structure  Fructose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, maltose, then lactose  The sweeter the sugar, the simpler the structure of the molecule

25 2. Preservatives  Water is drawn to sugar before it is drawn to bacteria  Without water, bacteria can’t grow or divide  Helps products, such as cakes, stay moist

26 3. Tenderizers  Helps make dough tender  Italian bread will have a paler color and chewier texture because it does not contain sugar  Sugar will increase the pourability of a batter

27 4. Caramelizing Agents  Caramelization: process of subjecting sugar to high or prolonged heat, which changes into a brown liquid  Dehydration is partially responsible for the browning and flavor changes  Brown crust on bread & condensed milk

28 5. Fermenting Agents  Sugar serves as a food supply for microorganisms (yeast) to create desired change in food  Examples: Yeast breads, wine, and beer

29 6. Crystallizing Agent  Linked to the solubility of sugars  Sugar’s ability to dissolve increase as temperature of solution increases  Water will evaporate as solution is heated to higher temperatures creating a supersaturated solution  Supersaturated: any solution that has been heated to dissolve more solute than the water would normally hold

30  Factors that affect sugar crystal formation 1. Type of sugar  Sucrose crystallizes rapidly with large crystals  Honey or molasses added to slow crystal formation 2. Use of interfering agent  Substances that can prevent or slow crystal growth  Corn syrup – fine crystals  Butter, cream, egg white – smooth, creamy candy  Cream of tartar, vinegar – increase sweetness

31  Factors that affect sugar crystal formation 3. Agitation of the sugar syrup  Beating and stirring of a candy solution  When hot, slightly stirring increases likelihood of crystal formation  Constant stirring cooled syrup prevents large crystals from forming

32  Factors that affect sugar crystal formation 4. Cooling of the sugar syrup  Vital if the final texture is to be smooth  Cooling rapidly produces large crystals in candy 5. Ripening of the finished product  Allowing candy to sit for a period in order to form creamy, smooth texture  Fondant


34  6.5% of calories should come sugar  Produce 4 kilocalories per gram when digested  Absorbed into the bloodstream & heads to the liver  Converted into glucose in the liver

35  Unneeded glucose is changed into glycogen  Glycogen: multibranched chains of glucose  2/3 of glycogen stored in muscles remaining stored in the liver

36 1. Main supply of energy  When body needs energy, single glucose is broken off a branch of glycogen  Allows for large amounts of glucose to be available quickly  Body can use 1/5 of total glycogen stores in 20 minutes during intense physical activity 2. Allows for proper digestion of fats and proteins  Without sugar, toxins would build up in the blood resulting in liver damage 3. Necessary for brain functions  Increases serotonin, calming effect & antidepressant

37  Tooth decay  Bacteria in mouth feed on sugar and produce plaque  Plaque reduces oxygen, which cause the bacteria to release acids that dissolve tooth enamel  Does not necessarily have to be sugar, but any food that contains carbohydrates

38  Diabetes mellitus: body’s inability to move glucose from the bloodstream to the cells  Insulin: hormone produced by the pancreas  Do not produce enough insulin, or their bodies fail to recognize its presence  Unable to handle large amounts of sugar in their bloodstream

39  Weight gain  All excess calories will be stored as fat  Practice moderation  Many foods high in added sugar provide few other nutrients

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