Presentation on theme: "Carbon Chemistry Carbon atoms can form single, double or triple bonds with other carbon atoms. Carbon can form up to 4 bonds This allows carbon atoms to."— Presentation transcript:
1Carbon ChemistryCarbon atoms can form single, double or triple bonds with other carbon atoms.Carbon can form up to 4 bondsThis allows carbon atoms to form long chains, almost unlimited in length.
2Macromolecules “GIANT MOLECULES” Made up of thousands of little molecules.Formed from a process known as polymerization, in which large molecules are produced by joining small ones together.The small units (monomers), join together to form large units (polymers)Show beads on a string. And show links on my watch. Together as one they make a macromoleucle
5Where Do Carbohydrates Come From? Plants take in Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) + heat from the sun and make glucose.C6H12O6
6CarbohydratesAs the name implies, consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.Hydrate=(water) hydrogen and oxygen.The basic formula for carbohydrates is CH2O, meaning that there is one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom as the ratio in the structure of carbohydratesWhat would be the formula for a carbohydrate that has 3 carbons.C3H6O3
7Carbohydrate Fancy way of saying sugar. Carbohydrates are energy packed compounds, that can be broken down quickly by organisms to give them energy.However, the energy supplied by carbohydrates does not last long, and that is why you get hungry every 4 hours.Carbohydrates are also used for structure.
8Saccharides Scientist use the word saccharides to describe sugars. If there is only one sugar molecule it is known as a monosaccharideIf there are two it is a disaccharideWhen there are a whole bunch, it is a polysaccharide.
9Glucose is a monosaccharide Notice there is only one sugar molecule.Glucose is the main fuel for all living cells.Cells use glucose to do work.
10Disaccharide Maltose Maltose is an example of a disaccharide Notice it is two sugar molecules together.Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
11The most common disaccharide is Sucrose Sucrose is glucose + fructose and is known as common table sugar.
12PolysaccharidePolysaccharides are a whole bunch or monosaccharides linked together.An example of a polysaccharide is starch.
13Most of the names of carbohydrates end in -ose Glucose-What plants makeMaltose- used in making beer (disaccharide)Fructose – found in fruit (monosaccharide)Sucrose- Table sugar (disaccharide)Lactose – In milk (disaccharide)
14Isomers Glucose C6H12O6 Fructose C6H12O6 Fructose sweeter then glucose because of its structure.Finger tent- put your fingers together to make a tent with your hands. Then, interlock your fingers so that they form x’s at the second joints in your fingers. Now, slide the fingers on your left hand down to the knuckle joints on your right hand. All ten of your fingers are there in this “finger compound”. The “formula” would be two thumbs + two index fingers + tow middle fingers + tow ring fingers + two pinkies. But when you slide your fingers, you are changing the position of them, You are changing the place or space they are occupying. So, although there are 10 fingers altogether and the “formula” of which fingers is unchanged, the way that the fingers exist in space varies. That type of simple difference can make chemicals react differently.
15Glucose can be fond in a ring structure or linear structure In Water
16Dehydration Synthesis Sounds technical but all it really means is taking out the water and making some thing new.Dehydration is what happens to you when you don’t drink enough water.Synthesis means “making some thing new”In this case we are taking out water and connecting glucose with fructose to make sucrose (table sugar)
17Hydrolysis Hydro=water lysis= break apart Hydrolysis breaks down a disaccharide molecule into its original monosaccharides.Hydrolysis, it means that water splits a compound.When sucrose is added to water, it splits apart into glucose and fructose.
18Do Too many carbohydrates make us fat! If you eat more calories than you expend in energy, then anything can be stored as fat - protein, fat or carbohydrate.Do Insulin or Carbohydrates Make Us Fat?By Denise Palmeri, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Denver County August 18, Insulin and excess carbohydrates make us fat. At least, that's the premise behind several of the best-selling high protein diet books. After reading the first few chapters of the Atkins' Diet, Sugar Busters or the Carb Addict's Diet, it's easy to see why people are drawn to these plans. The authors are so convincing that even those who know nutrition might begin to believe their claims. But, some things just didn't add up. Many high protein diet authors base their arguments on truths then jump to conclusions. Let's look at some conclusions the high protein diet books promote: 1. Carbohydrates make you fat. The human body uses three sources for fuel: carbohydrates, protein and fat. Carbohydrates (carbs for short) are the fuels the brain and spinal column prefer as a source of glucose energy. Protein is converted to glucose if carbohydrates aren't available. And fat, unfortunately, is the emergency fuel. It's stored in case of starvation.Even if we eat excess calories, we burn carbs before we burn fat. And dietary fat, which is found in most high-protein diets, is stored as fat more easily than are excess carbs.2. Insulin causes weight gain. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose into cells where it is converted to energy or stored as glycogen. Insulin also is responsible for storing fat. Some diet books say high-carb diets lead to higher insulin levels that promote the storage of carbs as fat. But according to Tufts University, 75 percent of the population doesn't have a problem eating a high carbohydrate diet. The pancreas secretes just enough insulin to deal with the amount of carbs eaten. Only about 25 percent of the population needs higher than normal insulin levels to do the same job. These people are considered insulin resistant because blood glucose is not cleared as fast as it normally would be. Still, insulin is not the problem. To make and store fat, you must eat more calories than you need. It doesn't matter whether the calories are from carbs, protein or fat. Remember, too, that carbs are used for energy before fat or protein is. Therefore, the first thing stored as fat is FAT from your diet, not carbs.Insulin resistance is associated with being overweight and inactive. Losing 5-10 percent of weight, or becoming active, helps to alleviate the resistance. Many people who are insulin-resistant also have "Syndrome X."Syndrome X is a termed coined by Dr. Gerald Reaven of Stanford University to describe a group of symptoms including high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and high levels of blood fats (primarily triglycerides and low HDL or "good" lipoproteins). 3. High protein diets will help you lose weight. Because a percentage of the population is insulin-resistant, are high protein diets the answer? Several studies have shown that eating a slightly higher amount of protein than high-carb diets suggest may improve cholesterol levels and lipid profile in insulin-resistant people. The protein levels, however, are not as high as those promoted by Atkins and other high protein proponents. The Dietary Guidelines suggest carbohydrates be 55 percent of total calories; protein - 15 percent; and fat - not more than 30 percent. The studies cited above traded about 5 percent of the total calories from carbs for lean sources of protein.4. High-protein diets cause people to regain lost weight. Many of the high protein diets limit calories to levels that induce starvation (below calories for most people). Weight is lost but the body adjusts and stores fat more than it did before. When regular eating is resumed, the body will keep storing fat until it realizes the starvation is over. That's why the weight quickly returns once you return to normal eating.Also, the blandness of some mostly protein diets, such as Atkins, can cause some dieters to eat more fatty foods. Fat definitely adds flavor to our foods, but too much also might add pounds and increase the risk of cancer or heart disease. 5. Ketosis is good. Ketosis is the condition that results when diets are low in carbs. It is your body's way of adapting to starvation. When carbs are low, the body burns fat through ketosis, so it can use ketones in place of glucose in the brain. Ketones suppress appetite and, if accumulated, can cause high uric acid levels. Ketosis is a dangerous result of high protein diets. It can lead to gout, kidney stones or the nasty breath odor about which some protein dieters complain. Not all protein diets are low enough to induce ketosis (under 50 grams of carbs). The preliminary Atkins' diet is an example of a diet that does induce ketosis.Higher protein diets (only 20 percent of calories from protein) might help those who are insulin resistant. But for most people, the most effective way to lose weight and keep it off still is through exercising and eating a diet based on whole grains and lots of fruits and vegetables. If you choose to increase your protein intake, be aware that too much protein could be harmful to your health. See your doctor before beginning any higher protein regime. Here are some other suggestions:Include all food groups, so no nutrients are missed.Select a diet that emphasizes low-fat meat choices. Or, better yet, trade some of the meat for plant protein alternatives.Select whole grain breads and cereals to increase fiber and to feel "full." Drink eight glasses of water a day (eight ounces each) to offset the dehydration created by protein diets.If unable to eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day (medium pieces or one-half cup cooked), take a standard multi-vitamin tablet.Choose a diet that allows at least 50 grams of carbs to prevent ketosis. For more information about protein diets, try the American Dietetic Association's book "Carbohydrates: What You Need to Know" or visit these websites:
19However if you do not take in any carbohydrates into your body you will use fat as fuel. Thank god for the low carb diet. Now, nobody wants to eat me because they think I make them fat.
20What do we do with all the sugar? Plants store glucose in the form of polysaccharides known as starch in their roots .Animals store glucose in the from of a polysaccharide known as glycogen in our liver and muscle cells.We eat plants and can break down the polysaccharides by hydrolyzing the bonds between glucose molecules.
21Cellulose The most abundant organic molecule on earth. Gives trees and plants structure and strength.Most animals can not break the glucose linkage by normal means of hydrolysis. Need special enzymes.We need cellulose (fiber) to keep our digestive tracts clean and healthy.
22Polysaccharides are used in the shell of crustaceans like crabs and lobsters. Chitin
23Carbohydrates also serve as structural elements. The chains sticking out of the proteins in the cell membrane are polysaccharides know as cell markers.
24How Sweet It Is Sucrose taste sweet but so does equal. Sucrose is made of sugarsEqual is made of amino acids linked together it taste sweet also, so what is going on here.The human tongue has four basic taste qualities.BitterSaltySourSweetWe perceive taste qualities when receptors on our tongue send a message to our brain.
25Its all about how tightly the molecules fit into the receptors on the tongue. The chemical structure of a compound determines its shape, which in turn will determine how well it will fit into a receptor.Compounds that bind more tightly to “sweet” taste receptors send stronger “sweet” messages to the brain.