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1. Amendment 14 Defines citizenship – makes you a citizen of USA first, then of your state. – Before this state citizenship was supreme – States could deny citizenship to anyone they chose makes states follow due process of the law guarantees equal protection of the law A Civil Rights amendment
2. Amendment 13 Ended slavery, except as punishment for a crime A Civil Rights amendment
3. Amendment 15 Gave the right to vote to black men Civil Rights amendment (voting)
4. Amendment 19 Gave the right to vote to women Civil Rights amendment (voting)
5. Amendment 26 Voting age lowered to 18 Vietnam war Civil Rights amendment (voting)
6. Suffrage The right to vote First held by white, male property owners – Extended to black men (Am #15, in 1870) – All property requirements gone by 1880 – Extended to women (Am #19, in 1920) – Extended to residents of Washington DC to vote in presidential elections (Am #23, 1961) – Voting age lowered to 18 (Am #26, 1971)
7. Miranda Rights Miranda v. Arizona Accused persons must be read their rights when they are arrested Right to remain silent (#5) Right to an attorney (#6) – Even if you can’t afford one Rights of the Accused
8. Amendment 1 Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Right to Peaceable Assembly Right to petition the government Individual Rights Amendment
9. Amendment 2 Right to bear arms So people would have weapons if they were called to fight for their state/country Also as a check against government tyranny Individual Rights
10. Amendment 4 Guarantees your Right to Privacy – Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures; must have a warrant that describes the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized – People or their homes may not be searched without a good reason (probable cause). – Search warrants (from judge) can only be issued if witnesses give good reasons UNDER OATH. Individual Rights
11. Amendment 5 Indicted by a Grand Jury for a capital (serious) offense No double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime) Can’t be forced to testify (give evidence) against yourself (called self-incrimination) “I plead the 5 th ” Guarantees Due Process of Law (your natural rights can’t be taken away unless all rules are followed) Eminent Domain – the government may seize private land for public use, but they must pay a fair price Individual Rights, Rights of the Accused
12. Amendment 6 Right to a speedy and public trial by jury Right to an attorney/lawyer Right to know the charges against you (what you are accused of) Right to call witnesses in court (right to see and question those who accuse you) Individual Rights, Rights of the Accused
13. Amendment 7 Right to a jury trial in civil (non-criminal) cases where value is $20 or more – About $500 today Individual Rights
14. Amendment 8 No excessive bail or fines No cruel or unusual punishment Individual Rights, Rights of the Accused
15. Amendment 9 Rights retained by the PEOPLE The people may have rights that are not listed in the Constitution. – Just because it’s not listed in the Bill of Rights doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s not a right Individual Rights Amendment
16. Amendment 10 Powers reserved to the states and the people Powers not given to federal govt. (nor denied to the states) are given to the states or people – reserved powers Example: elections, education, marriage and driver’s licenses, etc. Individual Rights amendment
17. Civil Rights Basic freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution Includes political rights (like voting) Women, African Americans, and other minorities were granted “RIGHTS” that they never had before Amendments 13, 14, 15 and 19
18. Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case that ended segregation in public schools Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal doctrine) Allowed African Americans to attend school with white students Desegregation
19. Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case that said the Separate but Equal doctrine was okay Separate facilities for black and white people were fine as long as they were equal – They were never really equal Made racial segregation (separation) legal until overturned by a later court ruling – Brown v. Board of Education
20. Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court case where the court gave itself the power of Judicial Review – court could overturn laws it found to be unconstitutional
21. Jim Crow Laws Laws that were used to enforce racial segregation (separation) in the US Found in both northern and southern states – Worse in the south After the end of post-Civil War Reconstruction
22. Double Jeopardy You can’t be tried twice for the same crime 5 th Amendment
23. Popular Sovereignty The people hold the ultimate power
24. Due Process of Law 5 th Amendment Everyone is treated “fairly under the law” because the govt. must follow all the rules – No shortcuts in legal system Everyone gets a day in court
25. Voting Rights 15 th Amendment – Suffrage for black males 19 th Amendment – Suffrage for women 23 rd Amendment – DC voting rights in presidential elections 24 th Amendment – Outlawed Poll Tax 26 th Amendment – Suffrage for anyone 18+ years old
26. Separation of Powers Govt’s power divided between 3 branches, each with its own jobs – Legislative branch – makes law – Executive branch – enforces law – Judicial branch – interprets law and settle disputes Limited Govt.
27. Checks and Balances Each branch of government has ways to check (limit) the powers of the other two branches Limited Govt.
28. Judicial Review Part of checks and balances Supreme Court decides if law is constitutional or not Marbury v. Madison is the case that set the precedent of judicial review Limited Govt.
29. Treason Taking the side of the enemy in wartime The only crime defined in the Constitution – In Article 3
30. Censorship Government examines books, movies, etc., and removes unacceptable parts before publication Violation of 1 st Amendment
31. Libel Attempting to hurt someone’s reputation by spreading lies in the press A limit on freedom of the press
32. Slander Spreading lies to hurt someone’s reputation Slander is spoken – Libel is written A limit on freedom of speech
33. Indict Formally charge a perspm with a crime before putting them on trial Done by a Grand Jury Part of the 5 th amendment – Rights of the Accused
34. Eminent Domain 5 th Amendment Govt. can take private land for public use but they must pay a fair price – State and Federal governments only have to pay you fair market value for your property, with or without your consent
35. 22 nd Amendment A check on the power of the presidency – To keep the president from getting too powerful The longer they’re in, the more power they can get Limits the president to ten years in office 10 years = 2 terms + 2 years 2 terms and 2 years…..22 nd Amendment
36. Federalism Divides government’s power into national and state levels The national govt. is more powerful than state or local govts. – Supremacy Clause
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