Objectives How the British seized and set fire to Washington D.C/ Why Andrew Jackson fought a battle after the war was over.
War Begins On June 18, 1812, for the first time the Congress of the United States declares war.
Opposing Sides Americans Army consisted of 7,000. 50,000 to 100,000 militia. Military command from the Revolutionary War was now old, retired, or dead. Tiny Navy British Large, well trained, battle tested Army. Had been fighting the French in Europe for years. Huge Navy
Fort Detroit American forces led by General William Hull invade Canada from Fort Detroit. They are driven back and Detroit is captured.
Battle of Lake Erie Oliver Hazard Perry became the American hero on Lake Erie. Building his own fleet, Perry met the British on September 10, 1813. His message about the victory made for the most iconic words of the war, “We have met the enemy, and they are ours”.
Battle of the Thames On October 5, American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated British and Shawnee at the Battle of the Thames. Shawnee Chief Tecumseh was killed during the fighting.
Destruction of York Once again Americans invaded Canada. This time they captured and burned York, the capitol of Canada.
U.S.S. Constitution One of three frigates in the U.S. Navy, the Constitution sank two British warships in the opening months of the war. When solid shot from the HMS Guerrier failed to penetrate the oak sides of the Constitution, she earned her immortal nickname, “Old Ironsides”.
Privateers With virtually no navy, Congress authorized privateers to harass British shipping.
Horseshoe Bend In March, 1814, Andrew Jackson led American forces to victory over the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend. The Creeks were forced to give up most of their lands.
British Offensive In June of 1814, British forces led by the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. This freed up thousands of British troops for service in America.
Washington D.C. Burned The British forces landed in Maryland and marched on to Washington D.C. Taking revenge for the destruction of York, the British returned the favor by burning the capitol building and the White House.
Baltimore The British launched a sea and land campaign against Baltimore. They felt this port was the heart of privateer operations. Guarding the harbor entrance was Fort McHenry. The fort was bombarded for over 23 hours.
Star Spangled Banner Watching anxiously through the night was Francis Scott Key. When he saw the American Flag flying “by the dawn’s early light”, he compose a poem titled “The Defense of Fort McHenry”. The poem was put to music. In 1931, Congress officially adopted the song as our national anthem.
Battle of Plattsburgh At the same time as Baltimore, Americans turned back a British invasion forces at Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain.
Treaty of Ghent Tired of war, both sides had negotiators bring the War of 1812 to an end. The Treaty of Ghent was signed December 24, 1814. But because of a lack of technology, word of the end of the war would not reach America for six weeks.
Battle of New Orleans Although fought after the war was over, The Battle of New Orleans goes down in history as one of the most lopsided wins ever. It will vault Andrew Jackson to national hero status.
American Nationalism With the victory at New Orleans and the end of the War, the Hartford convention, a plot to secede, broke up. The politicians who had opposed Madison were disgraced and a new feeling of allegiance toward the nation, “nationalism” was spreading.