4 PHILOSOPHYPhilosophy is a manner of thinking about the most basic questions and problems faced by human beings. Most people believe they have nothing to do with Philosophy and it has nothing to do with them. However there are times that such basic and important questions and problems will occur and be experienced by most human beings. It is at these times that Philosophy has arisen all over the world and within every culture. People will experience the death of others and they will wonder whether or not there is anything more to our existence than life in the physical body. Questions will arise as to whether or not there are actually souls or spirits. Do they survive the death of the body? Are they real? Is there a God, many gods? What is God like? What is religion all about? Are the stories true?
7 PHILOSOPHYPhilosophy is a human endeavor that has changed the course of history. We are all what we are, in part, because of the ideas of philosophers. Yet philosophy has and does impact the lives of just about every thinking person on the planet. In fact, the very way in which we think is partly the result of the ideas which philosophers have produced over the ages and in all cultures. Philosophers have contributed to our ideas about our science, society and forms of government and to our ideas about deities. The philosophical outlook influenced on a forming of different traditional systems of medicine: acupuncture, herbal therapy etc.
8 PHILOSOPHYThe aim of the study of course «Philosophy» is a formation of personality of future doctors, their civic qualities; gaining of the foundations for the philosophical understanding of human relations with the world and themselves for future medical and life practice.
9 What do you think Philosophy is? Let me list a few that are not correct. Some are very off the mark and others are only partially correct.Student attempts to define philosophy 1. Logical reasoning to answer any questions or problems.2. Means by which to view and encounter life.3. A system of beliefs and behaviors based upon experience and judgment.4. Different views and beliefs that people have.5. Just personal opinions6. Logical thinking or reasoning, taking into account all that is known to be convincing7. A frame of mind8. A way of viewing the world and handling life’s experiences and explaining it.9. Great thinkers thought and ideas.10. The way a person is able to maneuver their intellectual ability.11. A theory based upon moral codes and reasoning.12. Study of one’s thoughts without the impact of external opinions.13. Someone’s ideas and outlook on life or anything.14. Someone’s point of view.
10 What do you think Philosophy is? 15. The art of reasoning, thinking and discussing.16. Logic, knowledge, a body of principles to follow.17. A discipline of thinking, which involves moral reasoning, logic and principles.18. View or Opinion or Belief or Theory19. Ability to think and make your own judgments.20. Things I live by.21. A belief, way of life or religion.22. A way of Life23. A translation of the complexities from all angles and summarizing it to its simplistic terms.24. The way the individual interprets ort rationalizes what is encountered.25. Analyzing, questioning, discussing and thinking.26. Information handed down from generation to generation: beliefs, stories, rituals, and experiences.
11 PHILOSOPHY(FROM Greek philos, meaning “lover” and sophia, meaning “wisdom”)The great virtue of philosophy is that it teaches not what to think, but how to think. It is the study of meaning, of the principles underlying conduct, thought and knowledge.
12 REASON Practical reason has to do with acting to realize the goal Theoretical reason – has to do with beliefs.A theoretical proposition is good if it conforms to reality, while a practical proposition has more complicated and debatable standards. While practical reason decides what to do, it cannot remake reality any way it likes. The successful practical agent must take into account truths about the world.
13 Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy Philosophy can be divided into five branches which address the following questions:MetaphysicsStudy of ExistenceWhat's out there?EpistemologyStudy of KnowledgeHow do I know about it?EthicsStudy of ActionWhat should I do?PoliticsStudy of ForceWhat actions are permissible?ÆstheticsStudy of ArtWhat can life be like?
14 The main branches of philosophy There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen in the Concept Chart. At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence. Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence. Dependent on Epistemology is Ethics, the study of how man should act. Ethics is dependent on Epistemology because it is impossible to make choices without knowledge. A subset of Ethics is Politics: the study of how men should interact in a proper society and what constitutes proper. Esthetics, the study of art and sense of life is slightly separate, but depends on Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Ethics.
15 Metaphysics What is Metaphysics? Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy responsible for the study of existence. It is the foundation of a worldview. It answers the question "What is?" It encompasses everything that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. It says whether the world is real, or merely an illusion. It is a fundamental view of the world around us.Why is Metaphysics important?Metaphysics is the foundation of philosophy. Without an explanation or an interpretation of the world around us, we would be helpless to deal with reality. We could not feed ourselves, or act to preserve our lives. The degree to which our metaphysical worldview is correct is the degree to which we are able to comprehend the world, and act accordingly. Without this firm foundation, all knowledge becomes suspect. Any flaw in our view of reality will make it more difficult to live.
16 Epistemology What is Epistemology? Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge. It answers the question, "How do we know?" It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental. It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, and whether these relationships are valid or invalid.Why is Epistemology important?Epistemology is the explanation of how we think. It is required in order to be able to determine the true from the false, by determining a proper method of evaluation. It is needed in order to use and obtain knowledge of the world around us. Without epistemology, we could not think. More specifically, we would have no reason to believe our thinking was productive or correct, as opposed to random images flashing before our mind. With an incorrect epistemology, we would not be able to distinguish truth from error. The consequences are obvious. The degree to which our epistemology is correct is the degree to which we could understand reality, and the degree to which we could use that knowledge to promote our lives and goals. Flaws in epistemology will make it harder to accomplish anything.
17 What is Ethics?Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, "What do I do?" It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. Do we pursue our own happiness, or do we sacrifice ourselves to a greater cause? Is that foundation of ethics based on the Bible, or on the very nature of man himself, or neither?Why is Ethics important?Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors.Ethics
18 PoliticsWhat is Politics?Politics is ethics applied to a group of people.Why is this Important?Politics tells you how a society must be set up and how one should act within a society. Except for hermits, this comes up a lot.
19 Æsthetics What is Æsthetics? Æsthetics is the study of art. It includes what art consists of, as well as the purpose behind it. Does art consist of music, literature, and painting? Or does it include a good engineering solution, or a beautiful sunset? These are the questions that aimed at in esthetics. It also studies methods of evaluating art, and allows judgments of the art. Is art in the eye of the beholder? Does anything that appeals to you fit under the umbrella of art? Or does it have a specific nature? Does it accomplish a goal?Why is Æsthetics important?Art has existed through all of recorded human history. It is unique to humans because of our unique form of thinking. Its importance is based on this nature, specifically, man's ability to abstract. Art is a little understood tool of man to bring meaning to abstract concept. Esthetics is important because it delves into the reason why art has always existed, the burning need of mankind through the ages to see the world in a different, clear way. It further evaluates art by the standard of human life, and whether it accomplishes the job of satisfying man's intellectual needs, or whether it tends to hurt or make worse those needs.
20 The branches of philosophy Axiology: the study of value; the investigation of its nature, criteria, and metaphysical status.
21 Two parts of axiologyEthics: the study of values in human behaviour or the study of moral problems.Æsthetics: the study of value in the arts or the inquiry into feelings, judgments, or standards of beauty and related concepts. Philosophy of art is concerned with judgments of sense, taste, and emotion.
22 The branches of philosophy Dialectics – the study of sources, essence and laws of developmentLogic – the study of the laws and forms of argumentPhilosophical anthropology – the study of a man
23 Ten rules of Philosophy Allow the spirit of wonder to flourish in your breastDoubt everything until the evidence convinces you of its truthLove the truthDivide and ConquerCollect and constructConjecture and refuteRevise and rebuildSeek simplicityLive the truthLive the good
24 OutlookIt is a vision of the world from the only “center-position” of man
25 Basic components of Outlook CognitiveValueMotivating-active
26 Basic levels of outlook Vital-practicalTheoretical
27 Historical types of outlook MythologyReligionPhilosophy
28 FUNCTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY CognitiveMethodologicalCriticalVital-practical