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First Lesson. Fluorinated Material Fluoropolymers Market Size (tons) Turnover ($ billion) EVA Polyethylene 2 10 7 28.5 Fluoropolymers 1 10 5 2.3 PE/Fluoropol.

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Presentation on theme: "First Lesson. Fluorinated Material Fluoropolymers Market Size (tons) Turnover ($ billion) EVA Polyethylene 2 10 7 28.5 Fluoropolymers 1 10 5 2.3 PE/Fluoropol."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Lesson

2 Fluorinated Material

3 Fluoropolymers Market Size (tons) Turnover ($ billion) EVA Polyethylene Fluoropolymers PE/Fluoropol. 100:1 10:1 1:1 Fluoropolymers are specialty polymers: small volumes – high revenues – high technological content

4 Integration of Fluorine Chemistry HF F2F2 Organic Intermediates Fluorocarbons Base Monomers Melts Elastomers Fluids FLUORO CHEMICALS Fluorspar Chloro-feedstocks FLUORO MATERIALS Special Gases PTFE Special Monomers

5

6 Atomic Radius Increases Aumenta

7 Electronegativity Increases Decreases

8 Electron affinity Aumenta Diminuisce

9 Ionization Energy Aumenta Diminuisce

10 Fluoro 9 F NomeNome: fluoro SimboloSimbolo: F Numero atomicoNumero atomico: 9 Peso Atomico Peso Atomico : CAS Registry IDCAS Registry ID: Gruppo Gruppo : 7 Gruppo Gruppo : Halogen Periodo Periodo : 2 BlockBlock: p-block 1s 2 2(s 2 p 5 )

11 Description Standard state: gas at 298 K (m.p o C, b.p o C) Standard state Colour: pale yellow Colour Classification: Non-metallic Classification Availability Availability : 0.08% by mass of Earth's crust.

12 Cloro 17 Cl NameName: chlorine SymbolSymbol: Cl Atomic numberAtomic number: 17 Atomic weightAtomic weight: CAS Registry IDCAS Registry ID: Group numberGroup number: 7 Group nameGroup name: Halogen Period numberPeriod number: 3 BlockBlock: p-block 1s 2 2(s 2 p 6 ) 3(s 2 p 5 )

13 Description Standard stateStandard state: gas at 298 K (m.p o C, b.p o C) ColourColour: yellowish green ClassificationClassification: Non-metallic Availability Availability : 0.05% by mass of Earth's crust.

14 External electronic configuration n(s 2 p 5 ) Obey the octet rule acquiring an electron transfer from or to factors of a metal (eg Na + Cl) or for the formation of a covalent bond with the non-metallic elements (eg, CCl4). Strong oxidizers Oxidation states -1.0, +1, +3, +5, +7. Remarkable range of redox reactions in aqueous media. Anions are easily formed, but not cations (eg with the exception of iodine. I + ClO4-)

15 HBCNOF PSCl SeBr TeI (Electron Affinities) Table of Electron Gain Enthalpies (kJ mol-l) X -n (g) + e- X -(n+1) (g)

16 Raggi atomici degli alogeni e dei relativi anioni

17 F + Na F - + Na +

18 Homopolar Single Bonds Table of X-X bond energies (kJ mol -1 ) H-H436 B-B308C-C347N-N158O-O144F-F Si-Si226P-P198S-S266Cl-Cl243 Ga-Ga113Ge-Ge188As-As178Se-Se192Br-Br193 In-In100Sn-Sn146Sb-Sb141Te-Te126I-I151 H-H strongest; no core electron repulsion Down group IV(14), bond strength goes down overlap goes down and non-bonded repulsion goes up C-C > N-N > O-O, F-F F-F << Cl-Cl non-bonded electron and core replusion important

19 Table of bond energies (kJ mol -1 ) Element-Hydrogen Bonds B-H-389C-H411N-H386O-H456F-H565 Si-H318P-H321S-H364Cl-H432 Ge-H285As-H297Se-H313Br-H366 Sb-H257Te-H-270I-H298 Across period, B(E-H) increases, no core electron repulsion, so overlap can increase as covalent radius can be small Down group, B(E-H) decreases, as overlap decreases, as energy match condition is worse


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