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Non-discrimination. 1. Definitions Prohibition of discrimination (negative approximation)  requirement of equal treatment Encouragement of equal opportunity.

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Presentation on theme: "Non-discrimination. 1. Definitions Prohibition of discrimination (negative approximation)  requirement of equal treatment Encouragement of equal opportunity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-discrimination

2 1. Definitions Prohibition of discrimination (negative approximation)  requirement of equal treatment Encouragement of equal opportunity  „positive discrimination”

3 2. Principled sources Theological: equality before God Secular: fundamental principle of just society – norm of Kant of equal human dignity being due to everybody Classical liberal democracy: equality before law = arbitrary non- discrimination + principle of negative freedom (Mill)  prevention of injury of other people Rawls: The theory of justness – existent social differences fair equal opportunity – not unconditionally Unjust  2 fundamental elements of justness: * certain people less for prosperity of other people = unjustness * greater preference of certain people, improvement of conditions of poor people = not unjust

4 3. Non-discrimination as special right Independent right Measure of enforcement of other rights  procedural requirement Forbidden classification: race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, religion, political opinion, social ground, origins, color, sexual orientation, age + „any other grounds” (which individual cannot influence  classical case of discrimination) Deviation from the prohibition need to be verified – tests: Reasonable differentation standing on objective basic: if there isn’t any fundamental rights (earlier pension of miners)  rationality test Medium-strict examination: discrimination betwen genders, positive discrimination  important state interest The strictest test: forcing state interest  „suspicious reasons”: race, ethinicity

5 4. Its appearance 4.1. Mode of manifestation Direct Indirect (parttime) Victimization – causing agonies 4.2. Legal documents National: French Declaration, US Constitution (Lincoln: 13. prohibition of slavery, 14. due process, 14. general suffrage) International: UN Charter, Universal Declaration, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ECHR Article 14 (accessorial right) + Additional Protocol 12, EU directives (2000/43, 78)

6 4.3. The Hungarian Constitution Article 70/A para. (1) general egalitarian formula: race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origins, financial situation, birth or on any other grounds  not only citizens, but legal entity too, not only fundamental rights  Decision 61/1992 AB for the whole legal system Article 70/A para. (2) The law shall provide for strict punishment  Criminal Code, Civil Code, Labour Code, act on administrative procedure, act on consumer protection + Act CXXV of 2003 on equal treatment and encouragement of equal opportunity  Decision 45/2000 AB Article 70/A para. (3) measures for equal opportunity – positive discrimination is not unconstitutional (Decision 9/1990 AB) Other provisions: Articles 9 (property), 54 (dignity), 56 (legal capacity), 57 (court), 66 (man-woman), 70/B (labour), 70/I (general and proportionate sharing of taxation), 71 (suffrage) Test of MKAB: Discrimination concerning fundamental right  necessity- proportionality test (stricter) Concerning non-fundamental right  rationality test (Criminal Code Article 199)

7 5. Special fields 5.1. Discrimination on the basis of race International: UN- 1965: All types of racial discrimination Council of Europe - ECRI EU - 2000/43 National US SC - Dred Scott (1856): Plessy v. Fergusson (1896): „separate but equal”; Brown (1954): debarring of black citizenship; if separate, inherently unequal; Bakke (1978) Hungary: Case of Góman/Tiszavasvári/Patvarc

8 5.2. Discrimination on the basis of gender International UN Convenants + prohibition of discrimination against women Council of Europe: Article 14 + Additional Protocol 7 + Social Charter EU – labour of equal value ; ECJ: Kalanke: qouta system not, Marschall: individual quality yes; Charter of Fundamental Rights Article 23 National US v. Virginia (1996) – military school: the strictest measure Hungary: Decision 10/1990 AB – widow’s pension, Decision 46/1994 - women’s conscription, against men, too: Decision 7/1998 AB pension advantage to weaver; Municipial Court of Monor - Case of Profi

9 5.3. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation International Council of Europe the last several decades: Article 8 – privacy  age limit of consent, army, placement of children, but adoption not EU - directive 2000/78/EC expressly National US - Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) Hungary: Decision 14/1995 AB, Decision 21/1996 AB, Decision 20/1999 AB, Decision 37/2002AB rationality test + Sziget v. Tarlós

10 5.4. Positive discrimination International UN: women and men Council of Europe: nothing EU: encouragement (see Case of Marschall) National US: affirmative action: „inverse discrimination” on the basis of racism vs. „color-blind fundamentalism” Hungary: unequality before the law (Heller, Gombár) Decision 9/1990 AB, but in case of fundamental rights not! Plan of Ministry of Education about entrance examination Act on non-discrimination – Drittwirkung * direct discrimination from point a) to t); indirect; persecution; illegal separation; reprisal * giving preference * authority: from 01. 02. 2005

11 Thank you for your attention!

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