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© 2006 Non-Discrimination Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Austria
© 2006 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Definition ►Discrimination is any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference aimed at the denial or refusal of equal rights and their protection ►Discrimination is the denial of the principle of equality ►Discrimination is an affront to human dignity. Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Elements of Discrimination 1.Actions that are qualified as discriminatory such as distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference. 2.Causes of discrimination, personal characteristics such as race, colour, descent, national/ethnic origin, gender, age, physical integrity, religion, belief, etc. 3.Purpose and/or consequences of discrimination with the aim or effect to prevent a person from enjoying her/his human rights and fundamental freedoms. Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Forms of Discrimination ►Direct Discrimination: a person or group of persons is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation. ►Indirect Discrimination: an apparently neutral provision or measure puts a person or group at a disadvantage compared to others. ►Positive Discrimination or Affirmative Action: a temporary, special governmental measure to reach de facto equality and to overcome institutional forms of discrimination. Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Actors of Discrimination ►States: both positively with the enactment of laws to prosecute discrimination and negatively as the perpetrator ►Non-state Actors: as perpetrators as well as lobbyists for strengthened laws to prosecute discriminations ►Individuals: as victims and as perpetrators Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Racism ►No universally accepted definition exists ►Discussion on the use of the word “race” or “racial” is lead vigorously ►Racism exists and manifests itself at different levels: -personal level: attitudes, values beliefs -interpersonal level -cultural level: values and norms of social conduct -institutional level: laws, customs, traditions and practices Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Challenges and Responses ►A classical example for racism is the former Apartheid System of South Africa with an institutionalized form of racism and racial discrimination ►International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 1965 (ICERD) represents the international tool to combat racial discrimination, racism,… Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Other Forms ►Xenophobia: morbid fears of foreigners or foreign countries ►Intolerance: an attitude, feeling or belief which shows the contempt for other individuals based on their race, colour, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, political or religious belief… ►Prejudice: antipathy based on faulty and inflexible generalization Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Implementation and Monitoring ►Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination may receive - state reports - state-to-state complaints - petitions of individuals ►Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Discrimination Ombudspersons ►Regional laws such as the EC directives 2000/78/EC and 2000/43/EC Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Good Practices and Trends ►Public efforts: anti-discrimination clauses in public procurement contracts as implemented by the Swedish government ►Local efforts gone international: UNESCO International Coalition of Cities against Racism ►Racism on the Internet is rising ►Islamophobia after 11 September 2001 Non-Discrimination
© 2006 Chronology 1945 Charter of the United Nations 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1960 UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education 1965 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1973 International Covenant on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid 1978 UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice 1978 1st World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, Geneva 1983 2nd World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination 20013rd World Conference Against Racism and Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance 2004/5 Anti-discrimination laws for the private sector in the EU 2005Protocol N° 12 to the ECHR comes into force Non-Discrimination
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