Presentation on theme: "Understanding Students with Communication Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Students with Communication Disorders Chapter 6
2 What is communication? Receiving information Understanding information Expressing informationExpressing feelingsExpressing ideas
3 Speech Language Disorders Speech disorderLanguage disorderReceptive language disorderExpressive language disorderSpeech disorder: difficulty pronouncing sounds and voice quality (hoarse voice) or fluency problems such as stuttering, sometimes associated with cleft palate or lip where the person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lipLanguage disorder: difficulty receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and informationReceptive disorder: difficulty receiving or understanding informationExpressive: difficulty formulating ideas and information
4 Cultural Diversity in Communication Cooperative group activities and role-playingHighlight the value of cultural diversity: contributions of events, celebrations, and peopleGuest speakers from differing culturesParental involvement
5 Incidence 18.8% ages 6-21 get speech/language service 55% children ages 3-5 served under IDEA for speech/languageMost children spend majority of their day in general education
6 Typical Speech Development Person pushes air from lungsMuscles in larynx move vocal folds producing soundLarynx sits on top of the trachea and contains the vocal folds where voice is producedPerson forms sounds by varying the position of lips, tongue, and lower jaw
9 Phonology Use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words Encompasses the rules and sequencing of individual speech sounds (phonemes)Study and use of individual sound units in a language and the rules by which they are combined and recombined to create larger language units.Phonemes are the unit of sound such as /s/ or /b/ , they do not convey meaning.Phonemes alter meaning of words when combined (e.g., sat to bat).
10 Phonological Deficits Frequently appear as articulation disorders.Child omits a consonant: “oo” for youChild substitutes one consonant: “wabbit” for rabbitDiscrimination: child hears “go get the nail” instead of mail
11 What is a Phoneme? Different linguistic units: large to small The smallest unit of sound in our language that makes a difference to its meaning.Dog /d/ /o/ /g/Sun /s/ /u/ /n/Man /m/ /a/ /n/
12 What is Morphology? The system that governs the structure of words The smallest meaningful unit of speech is called a morphemeAdds plurals, inflection, affixes, and past tense markers to verbsFor example: changes “swim” to “swam”
13 SyntaxStudy of the rules by which words are organized into phrases or sentences in a particular language.Referred to as the grammar of the language and allows for more complex expression of thoughts and ideas by making references to past and future events.
14 Syntactic DeficitsLack the length or syntactic complexity (e.g., “Where Daddy go?”).Problems comprehending sentences that express relationship between direct or indirect objects.Difficulty with wh questions.
15 Semantics The larger meaning component of language. More than single words, includes complex use of vocabulary, including structures such as word categories, word relationships, synonyms, antonyms, figurative language, ambiguities, and absurdities.Semantics: language meaning; the meaning of individual words as well as the meaning that is produced by a combination of words.Categories include objects in general, actions in general, and relations between objects and relations between eventsStudents with semantic problems may use or understand a limited number of words. May be in specific areas, such as adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, or pronouns.Dysnomia: difficulty in retrieving or recalling specific wordsLack of understanding of how context can change the meaning of wordsUnderstanding of idiomsLinguistic concepts such as before/after, if/then, many, some, fewMisuse of transition words
16 Semantic DeficitsLimited vocabulary especially in adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, or pronouns.Longer response time in selecting vocabulary words.Fail to perceive subtle changes in word meaning: incomplete understanding and misinterpretations.Figurative language problems.
17 PragmaticsKnowledge and ability to use language functionally in social or interactive situations.Integrates all the other language skills, but also requires knowledge and use of rule governing the use of language in social context.Pragmatics: use of language in communication; may include verbal, vocal, or motoric expression.Rules that govern the use of language in social contexts to convey a variety of intentions such as requesting, asserting, or questioning.Sometimes referred to as communicative competence; may be least likely to be identified as an area of instruction or to be includes as part of the formal school curriculum.Problems include inability to understand indirect requests (Isn’t it time to go to bed now?), determining when the listener doesn’t understand, entering conversations in a socially-unacceptable manner, monopolizing conversation, inappropriate facial expressions, difficulty staying on topic.Figure 9.2: Pragmatic skills for communication
18 Pragmatic DeficitsProblems understanding indirect requests (e.g., may say yes when asked “Must you play the piano?”).May enter conversations in a socially unacceptable fashion or fail to take turns talking.Difficulty staying on topic.
19 Social Interaction Theories Communication skills are learned through social interactionsLanguage development is the outcome of a child’s drive for attachment with his or her worldVygotsky: children learn by doing with more experienced partners (guided learning)
20 Language Development Within first month - respond to human voices 3 months - turn, smile, and coo12 months - make sounds when spoken to, vary pitch and intensity, and experiment with rhythm, may say first words12-24 months - vocabularies increase to words
21 Language Development Cont. 3 year olds - understand simple questions and prepositions (in, on, under) and follow 2-step directions, have vocabulary of 900-1,000 wordsPreschoolers - ask W (5) and H questions and have vocabularies of 1,500-1,600 wordsAge 6 - use irregular verbs “be,” “go”, “run” and “swim” and have vocabularies of 2,600 words
22 Speech Disorders Articulation disorder Apraxia of speech Substitutions OmissionsAdditionsDistortionsApraxia of speechArticulation is a speaker’s production of individual or sequenced soundsSubstitutions: /d/ for /th/ - doze for those, /t/ for /k/ tat for cat or /w/ for /r/ wabbit for rabbitOmissions: leaves a phoneme out of a word (boo for blue, cool for school)Additions: place a vowel between 2 consonants (tree into tahree)Distortions: sound of the phoneme is distorted - usually called lisps (/s/, /z/, /sh/, and /ch/ are mispronouncedApraxia of speech - problems with the voluntary purposeful movements of speech often caused by stroke, head injury or tumor(/b/ for /p/ or /g/ for /k/
23 Voice Disorders Pitch Duration Intensity Resonance Hyponasality HypernasalityPitch: affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds -men have lower pitchDuration: length of time any speech sound requiresIntensity: Loudness and softnessResonance: quality of someone’s voice - the tone coming from vocal foldsHyponasality sound as if they have a cold or holding their noseHypernasality: air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity oon sounds other than /m/, /n/ and /ng/
24 Fluency Disorders Interruptions in the flow of speaking Hesitate Repeat themselvesUse fillers such as “umm”Stuttering
25 Organic Causes Nervous system Muscular system Chromosomes Formation of speech mechanismHereditary malformationPrenatal injuriesToxic disturbancesTumorsTraumasSeizures, Infections diseasesMuscular diseasesVascular impairments
26 Functional DisordersPresent when the cause of the impairment is unknown - no physical cause
27 Collaboration with Teachers Supportive teachingComplementary teachingConsultationTeam teachingSupportive: Teacher and speech language pathologist plan together a unit and how to support student, pathologist works individually with student to preteach wordsComplementary: speech pathologist takes notes while teacher teachesConsultation: speech pathologist works with teacher to adapt text
28 Augmentative and Alternative Communication Integrated groups of components that supplement the communication abilities of individuals who cannot communicate effectively through gestures, speaking, and/or writing
29 AAC Devices A symbol set A means for selecting the symbols Gestures PhotographsManual sign sets/systemsPictographs (symbols that look like what they represent)Ideographs (more abstract symbols)Printed wordsObjectsPartial objectsMiniature objectsSpoken wordsBrailleA means for selecting the symbols
30 ActivityGet into your groupRead over Box 6-3Answer questions 1-4