o WHAT IS AUTISM? o SUBTYPES OF AUTISM o CAUSES o SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS o DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING o TREATMENT o ASSOCIATIONS
What is autism? A complex developmental disability disorder. Begins with in the first three years of a person’s life. Most autistic children look like other kids but do puzzling and disturbing things.
Subtypes of Autism include: Autistic disorder Permasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) o Children often are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the environment. Asperger’s Syndrome o A group of conditions that involve delays in the development of basic skills such as ability to socialize with others, to communicate and to use imagination.
Subtypes of Autism Rett Syndrome o Is a rare but severe brain disorder o Affects girls o Discovered in the first two years of life Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Causes Autism is a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, Genetics; Metabolic or neurological factors; Certain type infections; And problems occuring at birth.
Signs and Symptoms Difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication such as inability to speak, gestures and facial expressions Difficulty with social interactions, including relating to people and to one’s surroundings (making friends and play them) Some sleeping problems Trouble understanding other’ feelings or talkings Repeat actions over and over again
Signs and Symptoms Difficulty in daily routines Unusual reactions to things they smell, taste, look, feel and sound Avoid eye contact with others and want to be alone Lack make-believe or pretend-play skills (evcilik)
Diagnosis and Screening No medical test such as blood tests Doctors observe the child’s behavior and development to make a diagnosis Takes 2 steps; Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation
Developmental Screening A short test to tell if children are learning basic skills when they should, or if they might have delays. Regular well-child doctor visits at; o 9 months o 18 months o 24 or 30 months Might be needed if a child is at high risk for developmental problems due to preterm birth, low birth weight etc.
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Looking at the child’s behavior and development and interviewing the parents Hearing and vision screening, genetic testing, neurological testing and other medical testing Specialists who can do this type of evaluation include; o Developmental pediatricians o Child neurologists o Child psychologists or psychiatrists
How is Autism treated? No exact cure but treatment may allow for relatively development in child and reduce undesirable behaviors. Special education: Structured to meet the child’s unique educational needs. Behavior modification: This includes strategies for supporting possitive behavior and decreasing problem behaviors. Speech, physical, or occupational therapy: Are designed to increase the child’s functional abilities. Social skills therapies: Address language and social pragmatics in verbal inndividuals with autism. Medication: to treat certain symptoms such as anxiety.
Associations AUTISM TREATMENT CENTER OF AMERICA CENTER FOR AUTISM AND RELATED DISORDERS (CARD) NATIONAL AUTISM ASSOCIATION AUTISM SOCIETY OF AMERICA
References http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html Lord C, Risi S, DiLavore PS, Shulman C, Thurm A, Pickles A. Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;63(6):694-701. Lord C, Risi S, DiLavore PS, Shulman C, Thurm A, Pickles A. http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/ http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/