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1.Pulmonary Vascular Disease 2.Pleural Disease Prof. Frank Carey.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Pulmonary Vascular Disease 2.Pleural Disease Prof. Frank Carey."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.Pulmonary Vascular Disease 2.Pleural Disease Prof. Frank Carey

2 Pulmonary Circulatuion r Dual supply l Pulmonary arteries l Bronchial arteries r Low pressure system r Pulmonary artery receives entire cardiac output (a filter)

3 Low pressure system…. r Thin walled vessels r Low incidence of atherosclerosis At normal pressures

4 Pulmonary Oedema r Accumulation of fluid in the lung l Interstitium l Alveolar spaces r Causes a restrictive pattern of disease

5 Pulmonary Oedema (causes) 1. Haemodynamic ( hydrostatic pressure) 2. Due to cellular injury i. Alveolar lining cells ii. Alveolar endothelium Localised – pneumonia Generalised – adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

6 ARDS r Diffuse alveolar damage syndrome (DADS) r Shock lung l Causes include sepsis, diffuse infection (virus, mycoplasma), severe trauma, oxygen

7 Pathogenesis of ARDS Injury (eg bacterial endotoxin) r Infiltration of inflammatory cells r Cytokines r Oxygen free radicals r Injury to cell membranes

8 Pathology of ARDS r Fibrinous exudate lining alveolar walls (hyaline membranes) r Cellular regeneration r Inflammation

9 ARDS with hyaline membrane

10 ARDS – cellular reaction

11 Outcome of ARDS r Death r Resolution r Fibrosis (chronic restrictive lung disease

12 Neonatal RDS r Premature infants r Deficient in surfactant (type 2 alveolar lining cells r Increased effort in expanding lung physical damage to cells

13 Embolus r A detached intravascular mass carried by the blood to a site in the body distant from its point of origin r Most emboli are thrombi – others include gas, fat, foreign bodies and tumour clumps

14 Pulmonary Embolus r Common r Often subclinical r An important cause of sudden death and pulmonary hypertension 95% + of emboli are thromboemboli


16 Source of most pulmonary emboli….. r Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs




20 Risk factors for PE are those for DVT…. 1. Factors in vessel wall (eg endothelial hypoxia) 2. Abnormal blood flow (venous stasis) 3. Hypercoaguable blood (cancer patients, post-MI etc) - Virchow’s triad

21 Effects of PE r Sudden death r Severe chest pain/dyspnoea/haemoptysis r Pulmonary infarction r Pulmonary hypertension

22 Effects of PE depend on… r Size of embolus r Cardiac function r Respiratory function

23 Effect of embolus size… r Large emboli l Death l Infarction l Severe symptoms r Small emboli l Clinically silent l Recurrent pulmonary hypertension


25 Pulmonary Infarct (ischaemic necrosis) r Embolus necessary but not sufficient r Bronchial artery supply compromised (eg in cardiac failure)

26 Pummonary Embolus

27 Pulmonary infarct – tumour embolus

28 Pulmonary Hypertension r Primary (rare, young women) r Secondary

29 Pulmonary Hypertension (mechanisms) r Hypoxia (vascular constriction) r Increased flow through pulmonary circulation (congenital heart disease) r Blockage (PE) or loss (emphysema) of pulmonary vascular bed r Back pressure from left sided heart failure

30 Morphology of pulmonary hypertension r Medial hypertrophy of arteries r Intimal thickening (fibrosis) r Atheroma r Right ventricular hypertrophy r Extreme cases (congenital heart disease, primary pulmonary hypertension) – plexogenic change/necrosis


32 Pulmonary artery – intimal fibrosis

33 Plexiform lesion – primary pulmonary hypertension

34 “Cor Pulmonale” r Pulmonary hypertension complicating lung disease r Right ventricular hypertrophy r Right ventricular dilatation r Right heart failure (swollen legs, congested liver etc)

35 Cardiomegaly due to right ventricular dilatation

36 Right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation

37 The Pleura r A mesothelial surface lining the lungs and mediastinum r Mesothelial cells designed for fluid absorption r Hallmark of disease is the effusion

38 Pleural Effusion r Transudate (low protein) l cardiac failure l hypoproteinaemia r Exudate (high protein) l pneumonia l TB l connective tissue disease l malignancy (primary or metastatic)

39 Pleural effusion

40 Purulent Effusion Full of acute inflammatory cells r Empyema r Can become chronic

41 Pneumothorax Air in pleural space r Trauma r Rupture of bulla

42 Large bullae

43 Pleural Neoplasia r Primary l benign (rare) l malignant mesothelioma r Secondary l common (adenocarcinomas - lung, GIT, ovary)

44 Mesothelioma r Asbestosis related r Increasing incidence r Mixed epithelial/mesenchymal differentiation r Dismal prognosis

45 Mesothelioma

46 Pleural biopsy - mesothelioma

47 Metastases in Pleura

48 Differential diagnosis of malignant effusions….. r Cytology, biopsy r Difficult r Immunohistochemistry for lineage specific antigens may help r Medicolegal importance







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