Presentation on theme: "Biotecnologie ambientali Phytoremediation (fitodepurazione)"— Presentation transcript:
1Biotecnologie ambientali Phytoremediation (fitodepurazione) Parte delle slide prese da:
2PROGRAMMALe piante coltivate e la sindrome da domesticazione: shattering e dormienzaRischi e benefici ambientali delle piante transgeniche in paragone a quelle convenzionali.Convenzione di Rio, Protocollo di Cartagena e normativa sulle piante create tramite ingegneria geneticaPiante per una maggiore sostenibilità ambientale (es. plastiche biodegradabili), per il risanamento (fitodepurazione) e come biosensori di contaminazione.Interazione pianta-microrganismo: le risposte di difesa delle piante e generazione di specie resistenti.Interazione simbiotiche pianta-microrganismo: fissazione dell’azoto (batteri azoto fissatori) ed efficienza nella nutrizione minerale (funghi vescicolo arbuscolari)
3“Disadvantages” of plants: Phytoremediation: to remediate polluted soil and/or water with plants.An alternative to landfill disposal or physical / chemical processing.Present strategies:Bioaccumulation (transport and storage for harvest)Bioprocessing (chemical transformation to CO2, NH3, Cl- & SO42-)Advantages of plants:Plants demonstrate tolerance to toxinsPhotosynthesis-free energyExtensive root systems to mine soil (440 million km/h/yr**)Selective transport of materials out of water/soilLarge biomass for harvestingSpecies adapted to different ecosystems including wetlands“Disadvantages” of plants:Transgenics & their envoronmental release**Meagher gives this value as 100 million miles/acre/yr ( = 439,767,756 km/h/y)
4Tipi of fitodepurazione Phytoextraction - uptake of substances from the environment, with storage in the plant (also known as phytoaccumulation).2. Phytostabilization - reducing the movement or transfer of substances in the environment, for example, limiting the leaching of soil contaminants.3. Phytostimulation - enhancement of microbial activity for the degradation of contaminants, typically around plant roots.4. Phytotransformation - uptake of substances from the environment, with degradation occurring within the plant (phytodegradation).5. Phytovolatilization - removal of substances from the soil or water with release into the air, possibly after degradation.6. Rhizofiltration - the removal of toxic materials from groundwater through root activity.
5From Pilon-Smits (2005) Annu Rev Plant Biol 56: 15-39 Herbicides, TNT, MTBE, TCEPhytodegradationMercurySeleniumTCE, PCEHeavy metalsSe, AsRadionuclidesTCE/PCE...Organics(PCBs, PAHs)Nonbiological remediation technologies and bio/phytoremediation are not mutually exclusive.
6Pollution Heavy metals Phosphate Arsenate Nitrogen Insecticides ClassificationA major distinction between elemental and organic pollutants: Most organic pollutants can be mineralized, while elements cannot.SourceAgriculture (pesticides, herbicides, irrigation water), mining, transport, spills (fuel, solvents), military activities (explosives, chemical weapons), industry (chemical, petrochemical), wood treatment...Heavy metalsPhosphateArsenateNitrogenInsecticidesHerbicidesPCBs, TCE,...Radionuclides
7Because biological processes are ultimately solar-driven, phytoremediation is on average tenfold cheaper than engineering-based remediation methods such as soil excavation, soil washing or burning, or pump-and-treat systems.Phytoremediation is usually carried out in situ contributes to its cost-effectiveness and may reduce exposure of the polluted substrate to humans, wildlife, and the environment.Examples in detailPhytoextraction (As/ H3PO4/ metals)Phytodegradation/PhytotransformationPhytodegradation of explosivesPhytodetoxification of mercuric
8Bioaccumulation of Arsenic the 20th most common element in the earth’s crust and the 12th most common element in the human body.Arsenic is a major worldwide contaminant that can arise through industrial activity (pesticides, mining, combustion etc.) or from soil and ground water.Associated with acute poisoning and linked to liver, lung, kidney, bladder cancer; cause skin lesions; damage to the nervous system.Physical remediation (resins etc.)Reference:Meyer and Verbruggen (2012) The use of the model species Arabidopsis halleri towards phytoextraction of cadmium polluted soilsNew Biotechnology Volume 30, Number 1 November 20128
9Bioaccumulation of Arsenic In India and Bangladesh(around the Bay of Bengal)~400 million people are at riskof arsenic poisoning, and up to40 million people drink wellwater containing toxic levelsof arsenic.Reference:Limite per l'arsenico proposto dall'OMS e valido per gli USA è di 0.01 mg/L (10 μg/L, 10 ppb).Limite europeo ammesso per il Glifosate (per la potabilità): 0.1 ppb9
10Bioaccumulation As/Hg: General Strategy (Meagher & Heaton, 2005) Reference:Meagher, R. and Heaton, C. (2005) Strategies for the engineered phytoremediation of toxic element pollution: mercury and arsenic. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 32:10
11γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase Arabidopsis engineered to hyperaccumulate arsenicBioaccumulation of Arsenicarsenate reductaseγ-glutamylcysteine synthetaseStrategy behind cloningbacterial arsenate reductase (ArsC) catalyzes reduction of arsenateto arsenite.bacterial γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) catalyzes the formationof γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) from glutamate and cys for synthesisof glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs; three arrows)reduced arsenite can bind organic thiols (RS) such as those in γ-EC, GSH,and PCs. Then transfer to vacuole.Reference:Dhankher, et al. (2002) Engineering tolerance and hyperaccumulation of arsenic in plants by combining arsenate reductase and -glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. Nature Biotechnology 20: 1140 – 1145.Dhankher, et al. (2002)11
12Bioaccumulation of Arsenic The prokaryotic arsC gene has been previously shown to confer resistance in the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae
13The bacterial ArsC enzyme was expressed under control of the soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small-subunit (rubisco) SRS1 gene promoter, which shows strong light-induced expression in leaves and stems.Comparative growth inhibition of three SRS1p/ArsC lines% relative concentration of free AsO43-, AsO33-, and As(III) tris-GSH in leaves
14Comparative growth of two hybrid lines, the parental lines expressing either ArsC or γ-ECS alone, and (WT) grown for 3 weeks on NaAsO3I doppi trasformanti resistono a concentrazioni di arseniato più alte
15Arsenic contamination: removed by phytoextraction P. vittata, a natural arsenic hyperaccumulator, can tolerate soil concentrations of 1,500 μg arsenate/g and can accumulate up to 23 mg arsenic/g in its shoots (fronds). The striking difference between P. vittata and arsenic non-accumulators is the enormous transport of arsenic from roots to shoots in P. vittata. In most plants, only a small fraction of the arsenic taken up from soil by roots accumulates in the above-ground tissue (<20%), whereas P. vittata accumulates up to 95% of the arsenic in above-ground tissue.“The Chinese Ladder fern Pteris vittata, also known as the brake fern, is a highly efficient accumulator of arsenic. P. vittata grows rapidly and can absorb up to 2% of its weight in arsenic. . . When grown on soil with 100 ppm not only did it absorb more arsenic, but it grew 40% larger than normal.” Lena Q. Ma, 2001
19Phytoextraction of excess nutrients: Pig slurry cleanup Using duckweed (Lemna)19
20Rhizofiltration using Arundo donax • Sewage and urbanwastewaters• Halogenated residues(USA)• N, P and S richwastewaters (fornutrient stripping)• Saline waste waters(reduce volumes bytranspiration thru Adx togrow biomass)Immagine da una presentazione del South Australian Research & Development Institute (Arundo-SARDI.ppt)Intensive root system(Marton and Czako, USA)20
22YCF1 confers Pb(II) and Cd(II) resistance to yeast Il mutante nullo ycf1 di lievito è più sensibile a Pb2+ e Cd2+Il mutante sovraesprimente YCF1 è più resistente a Pb2+ e Cd2+Il mutante sovraesprimente YCF1 presenta molto più mRNA
23Fluorescence of GFP-YCF1 PbCdLa sovraespressione di YCF1 in lievito porta un maggior accumulo di Pb e CdYCF1 è presente nella membrana plasmatica e vacuolarebrightfieldFluorescence of GFP-YCF1FM4-64 stains plasma (top) and vacuolar (bottom) membranes
24Fluorescence of GFP-YCF1 RT-PCR su Arabidopsis che esprime YCF1Southern blot sulla RT-PCRcbrightfieldFluorescence of GFP-YCF1.GFP-YCF1 espresso in protoplasti di A. thaliana è localizzato sulla membrana plasmatica e vacuolare
25Crescono meglio (maggior biomassa) Generazione T2Arabidopsis transgenica per YCF1 mostra una maggior resistenza a a Pb2+ e Cd2+Generazione T2Crescono meglio (maggior biomassa)
26Il contenuto espresso in μg/pianta è più efficace Il contenuto per g di peso fresco non è molto diverso, ma ci deve essere una diversa localizzazioneIl contenuto espresso in μg/pianta è più efficaceVacuoli isolati dal trasformante accumulano più coniugati di GS-Cd
27Phytoextraction in action Accumulatrici naturali vengono trapiantate sul terreno contaminatoThe location: a base-metal smelter, South AfricaThe problem: Ni contamination over 5ha due to Ni salt storage and spillageThe solution: phytoextraction usinga native nickel-accumulating speciesLa biomassa viene poi bruciata
28Phytoextraction for gold Thio-ligands can induce the solubility and uptake of gold from waste, low-grade rockDiscovery made in New ZealandProof of concept achieved and the technology is being field testedAim is a crop of 10 t/ha biomass with 100 mg/kg gold concentration dry weightThis will yield 1000 g of gold per hectare as well as other metals made solubleCurrent focus is on mercury (Hg) removal at the same time as gold
29Biodegredation of Organomercury Methylmercury is a pollutant that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chainwith severe consequences for humans and other animals.The main targets include free cysteine in proteins and peptides leading todamage in the central nervous system.Symptoms include sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbedsensation and a lack of coordination.Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world and it is harmless in aninsoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous asmethylmercury [CH3Hg]+ due to its aqueous solubility.Sources of Mercury include burning coal and mineral extraction. Many usesof mercury are being curtailed or eliminated.Lyrra et al. (2007) Coupling two mercury resistance genes in Eastern cottonwood enhances the processing of organomercury. Plant Biotechnology Journal 5:Omichinski, J,G, (2007) Toward methylmercury bioremediation. Science 317:29
30Phytostabilization of mercury by willow roots Yaodong Wang, 2004
31Phytodetoxification of mercuric compounds Bizily, S., Rugh, C., Meagher, R. (2000) Phytodetoxification of hazardous organomercurials by genetically engineered plants. Nature Biotechnology. 18:Methylmercury is found in wetlands and aquatic sediments worldwide. Both ionic mercury and methylmercury are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, but methylmercury is retained much longer in the body and is, therefore, is carried up through the food chain more efficiently. Plants engineered with both the merA and merB genes should be able to extract methylmercury from contaminated environments and transpire Hg(0) into the atmosphere. Because Hg(0) resides in the atmosphere for approximately two years, transpired Hg(0) will be diluted to much lower concentrations before being redeposited into terrestrial waters and sediments rather than being concentrated in one area. Additionally the amount of Hg(0) emitted from sites undergoing phytovolitalization can be regulated and will most likely be small in comparison to the concentrations of Hg(0) already in the atmosphere.merB merA/merB merA control
32Rhizofiltration: sunflowers after Chernobyl disaster Plants on rafts in pondwater: removed radionuclides ofstrontium, cesium, etc.
33Tolerance mechanisms for inorganic and organic pollutants in plant cells. Detoxification generally involves conjugation followed by active sequestration in the vacuole and apoplast, where the pollutant can do the least harm. Chelators shown areGSH: glutathione,Glu: glucose,MT: metallothioneins,NA: nicotianamine,OA: organic acids,PC: phytochelatins.Active transporters are shown as boxes with arrows.I contaminanti organici sono spesso biodegradati
34Phytodegradation/Phytotransformation Breakdown of contaminants taken up by plants through metabolic processes within or external to plant through effect of compound produced by plantsOxidoreductases, dehalogenases, nitroreductases, peroxidases, nitrilases & laccases may involvedPhytodegradation/Phytotransformation
35Phytodegradation of pesticides by a notorious pest plant The potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove a phosphorus pesticide ethion were investigated. The disappearance rate constants of ethion implied that plant uptake and phytodegradation contributed 69% and that of microbial degradation took up 12% to the removal of the applied ethion. The accumulated ethion in live water hyacinth plant decreased by 55-91% in shoots and 74-81% in roots after the plant growing 1 week in ethion free culture solutions, suggesting that plant uptake and phytodegradation might be the dominant process for ethion removal by the plant. This plant might be utilized as an efficient, economical and ecological alternative to accelerate the removal and degradation of agro-industrial wastewater polluted with ethion.Xia H, Ma X. (2006) Phytoremediation of ethion by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from water. Bioresour Technol May;97(8):
36Michael Dossett1, and Xiaoping Wang2, and Stuart E. Strand3 Phytodegradation of TCE, other chlorinated hydrocarbons by hybrid and/or transgenic poplarA MASS BALANCE FIELD TRIAL OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE PHYTOREMEDIATION USING POPLAR: PHYTODEGRADATION IS THE LIKELY FATEMichael Dossett1, and Xiaoping Wang2, and Stuart E. Strand3
37- Trichloroethylene Chloroacetate Trinitrotoluene Triaminotoulene Cl Cl Cl OC=C C C CO2 + Cl2H Cl Cl H OTrichloroethylene ChloroacetateCH NO CH NH3+NO NH CO2 + NH4+NO NH3+Trinitrotoluene Triaminotoulene
38Biodegradation of explosives The Problem:Contamination to explosives TNT, RDX and glycerol trinitrate.“Exposure to TNT and RDX, and their degradation products causessymptoms such as anemia and liver damage. These chemicals can be lethaland are suspected carcinogens.Hundreds of tons of these compounds are found in sediments atinnumerable manufacturing sites and storage sites for unexploded ordnancearound the world. Tens of thousands of acres of land and water resourcesare unsafe because of RDX and TNT contamination.”The “Solution”:Engineer plants that are able to degrade these compounds in situ.References:French et al. (1999) Biodegradation of explosives by transgenic plants expressing pentaerythritoltetranitrate reductase Nature Biotechnology 17:Meagher, R.B. (2001) Pink water, green plants, and pink elephants. Nature Biotechnology 19:Rylott et al. (2006) An explosive-degrading cytochrome P450 activity and its targeted application forthe phytoremediation of RDX. Nature Biotechnology 24:Meagher, R.B. (2006) Plants tackle explosive contamination. Nature Biotechnology 24:38
39Biodegradation of explosives These are the targetsBreakdown of TNT to ADNT (monoaminodinitrotoluene) can create“sterile” pink water lagoons.39
40Biodegradation of explosives: The general strategy is to isolate catabolic genes and throughstandard cloning technologies convert them into plant genes expressedvia aconstitutive promoter such as the CaMV 35S promoter for expressionthroughout the plant.tissue-specific promoter for expression to leaves, stems etc.Following transformation and plant regeneration, the properties ofthe plant are evaluated by standard tests.Bacteria are the usual source of the genes, bacteria such asEnterobacter cloacae or Rhodococcus rhodochrous that can grow on thesecontaminants.40
41Biodegradation of explosives: Summary from Meagher (2006). Key: RDX, TNT, ADNT: See Fig 6NR:nitroreductaseXplA:RDX-degradingcytochrome P450NDAB:4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal.These rhodococcal strains degrade RDX by initial denitration, followed by ring cleavage, yielding nitrite, formaldehyde and 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal7, 9 (Fig. 1a).41
42Proposed RDX breakdown pathway Protein purification on 10% SDS-PAGE.Lane 1, molecular weight marker; Lane 2, solubilized recombinant protein; Lane 3, affinity purified XplA. (c) UV-visible absorbance spectra of purified XplA: oxidized; sodium dithionite reduced; reduced bubbled with carbon monoxide. (d) UV-visible absorbance spectra of extracted flavin cofactor. (e) Activity of purified protein under anaerobic conditions. Solid shapes, active XplA; open shapes, boiled XplA.
43Biodegradation of explosives: from Rylott et al. (2006) Conclusion from these experiments:decontamination works in a model systemTNT can be catabolizedRDX is catabolized and the nitrogen used for growth (win-win!!)43
44(Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) Transcriptional Profiling: Arabidopsis Thaliana Root Responses to ExplosivesSAGE—Serial Analysis of Gene Expression— tagsVery different metabolismRDX(Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)TNT(Trinitrotoluene)I geni indotti sono ottimi candidati per la sovraespressioneNPR1-like proteinputative glutathione transferaseDnaJ-like proteinLe reazioni di detossificazione seguono il modello del “green liver” di SandermannMYB like proteingamma-VPE (vacuolar processing enzyme)Carbamoyl-P synthetase small subunitputative transcription factortransporter-like proteinputative peroxidaseputative ser/thr-protein kinaseputative 3-dehydroquinate synthasemonodehydroascorbate reductase-likevacuolar H+-ATPase subunit H (VHA-H)NAM, no apical meristem, - like proteinvacuolar H+-transporting ATPase 16K chain P2similar to bacterial tolB proteinsputative transcription factoralpha-hydroxynitrile lyase-like proteincytochrome P450, putative(TCCCCTATTA) no matches in genome
45Jackson et al., (2007) Exploring the biochemical properties and remediation applications of the unusual explosive-degrading P450 system XplA/B. PNAS 104:16822–16827.E’ possibile sfruttare i sistemi degradativi scoperti nei batteri o altri microrgansmi e introdurli nelle piante
46Uptake and metabolic use of cyanide by willows Transport and metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanide complexes by willowS. EBBS1, J. BUSHEY2, S. POSTON1, D. KOSMA1, M. SAMIOTAKIS1 & D. DZOMBAK
47Remediation of saline soils Salicornia (pickleweed) accumulates salt in vacuole.A form of table salt can then be extracted from plant.
48Aluminium detoxification: Gene for citrate synthase used for production of transgenic plants produce higher level of citrate & secrete it into the soil through roots ,which bind with Aluminium which is incapable of entering rootsE.g tobacco, papaya, rice & cornTNT detoxification:Transgenic tobacco produced by transformation with nitroreductase gene nfs1 isolated from Enterobacter cloacae can tolerate high TNT conc.
49The most important single act of phytoremediation? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2In sintesi: tanta ricerca, tanti risultati interessanti ma per ora non ci sono prodotti commerciali e vista l’attuale situazione normativa difficilmente se ne vedranno
50BibliografiaSong et al. (2003) Engineering tolerance and accumulation of lead and cadmium in transgenic plants. Nat. Biotech.Ghosh Moyukh , Singh S.P ,Trivedy R.K, Sharma Sadhana(Eds) Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils:role of natural & synthetic chelatins,Biotechnological applications in environmental management,B.S.publication.Sharma J., Saini V., Singh A., Singh N., Trivedy R.K, Sharma S. (Eds) (2005) Phytoremediation of organic pollutants , Biotechnological applications in environmental management, B.S.publication.Kumar R., Sharma J., Gaur P.,Trivedy R.K, Sharma Sadhana (Eds) 2005 Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals,Biotechnological applications in environmental management ,B.S.publication. Singh B.D Biotechnology Expanding horizon , Kalyani Publishers 2008Mc Grath S.P , Zhao F.J (2003) Phytoextraction of metal and metalloid from contaminated soil , current opinion in Biotechnology 14:Richard B Meagher (2000) Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants. Current opinion in plant biology 20003:435.Singh J.S , Singh S.P , Gupta S.R , Ecology Environment and Resources Conservation , Anamaya publishers 2006.Rao et al., (2009) Phytoremediation and phytosensing of chemical contaminants, RDX and TNT: identification of the required target genes. Funct Integr Genomics. ???