2 Northern Tropics – The Guianas Includes Guyana, Suriname, and French GuianaPhysical CharacteristicsShare tropical wet climate, rain forest, and a coastal plainHuman CharacteristicsGuyana – Official language is English; Christian, Muslim, HinduSuriname – Dutch is spoken; Christian, Muslim, HinduFrench Guiana – Official language is French; CatholicEconomic ActivitiesAll three share similar activities; fishing, farming, mining
3 Northern Tropics - Venezuela Official language Spanish, people mostly Roman CatholicAndean HighlandsStretch across northern Venezuela; Capital city Caracas in this regionWaterfalls and GrasslandsWorld’s highest waterfall Angel FallsLlanos (plains) on both sides of Orinoco RiverElevation and ClimateFarmers grow different crops at different elevations.An Oil-Rich RegionEconomy mostly petroleum; top ten oil producer worldwide
4 Northern Tropics - Colombia Physical CharacteristicsThree regions – lowlands, mountains, llanosThree quarters of people live between Andes in fertile valleysSingle CropMost farmland is used to grow coffeeDrug TradeHuge quantities of marijuana and cocaine are exported illegallyEstimate smuggling of drugs is twice as profitable as coffeeCooperation and ConflictCivil war in 1950’s resulted in 200,000 people killedStruggles to find solutions to challenge of social inequality
5 Andean Countries – Physical Characteristics Andean Mountains divide Andean nations into three environments.Coastal PlainNarrow plain that stretches along the entire Pacific coast from Colombia to southern end of Chile.HighlandsPlateau regions known as altiplano in Peru and Bolivia and as paramos in Ecuador.Tropical ForestsAmazon rain forests begin in forested regions called selva.
6 Andean Countries – People and the Environment Andean Countries contain rich soil, mountains contain a wealth of minerals.Mountains also restrict some trade to outside countries.Economic ActivitiesPeople have adapted to elevation by engaging in vertical trade.Physical EffectsAndean Native Americans who have lived at high altitudes for centuries have developed larger hearts and lungs.
7 Andean Countries – Ecuador Takes its name from the EquatorPopulation used to be concentrated in mountainous highlands, but now evenly distributed to coastal lowlandsOil was discovered in 1960s in lowlands which quickly became one of Ecuador’s most important exports.Government mismanagement and fluctuating oil prices caused decline in Ecuador’s growth in 1990s.
8 Andean Countries - Peru Peru was the heart of the Inca Empire before it fell to the Spaniards in early 1500s.Most Peruvians are mestizos who work in factories or on plantations.Poverty and unemployment are a very big concern.Visit Peru
9 Andean Countries - Bolivia Climate varies depending on each region’s altitude.Contains world’s highest navigable lake, Lake TiticacaMost of Bolivia’s people are Native American subsistence farmers who live in the highlands.Struggling about what to do with large natural gas reserves.One of the poorest nations in South America.
10 Andean Countries - Chile Name means end of the landUnlike the other Andean nations, Chile has relatively few Native Americans.Fertile river basin regions grow wine grapes, fruit, and vegetables.Chile’s economy has done well but still has about 3 million people living below the poverty line.Chile and Bolivia
11 Southern Grassland Countries – Physical Characteristics Great RiversBuenos Aires and Montevideo are located on the Rio de la PlataAndean RegionHighest peaks of the Andes are in western ArgentinaTropical LowlandsAlso known as Gran Chaco, or hunting landGrasslandsPampas were home to hundreds of gauchos; now produces grainPatagoniaSouth of the temperate grasslands, well suited for raising sheep.
12 Southern Grassland Countries - Paraguay Almost all Paraguayans live in the highlands of the east.Half of the people live in urban areas, especially AsuncionMost Paraguayans are mestizos who speak SpanishEconomy based on agriculture, cotton, grains, and livestock
13 Southern Grassland Countries - Uruguay Most Uruguayans are of European descent, mainly Italian and Spanish.Much of Uruguay is rolling grasslandsPrimary economic activities are raising livestock, processing meat, and making wool and leather.Uruguay is one of the few countries in which people are required to vote and fined if they do not.
14 Southern Grassland Countries – Argentina Most of Argentina’s people are of Spanish and Italian descent13 million people live in Buenos Aires; Argentina has highest per capita GNP of Latin America countriesPolitical instability between 1940 and 1983; many dictators