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Chapter 13: Countries of South America. Learning Objectives  How has migration made the Guiana's culturally distinct from rest of S. America  How do.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Countries of South America. Learning Objectives  How has migration made the Guiana's culturally distinct from rest of S. America  How do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: Countries of South America

2 Learning Objectives  How has migration made the Guiana's culturally distinct from rest of S. America  How do Ven. Characteristics influence their economy?  What are the problems of a one-crop ag. System in columbia Vocabulary  Mulatto  Bauxite  Llano  Cordillera  Campesino

3  Made up of Guyana, Suriname, and Fr. Guiana  Europeans brought enslaved Africans to work on sugar plantations  Asian began migrating there post slavery  Majority of people in Guyana belong to 2 descents (over ½ Asian)  Suriname= 50% Asian, 10% African descendnts  French G= Similar to Sur. But more African and Mulatto %’s  Economic Activities: All based on Shared natural resources; fishing, bauxite, sugar/rice

4  More typical to rest of S. America  Spanish language, Mestizo/European descent  Physical Characteristics  Andean Highlands  Waterfalls/Grasslands: Wet/Dry region important for cattle grazing  Elevation/Climate: (see figure on pg.270) ▪ Leads to a variety of crops being grown at diff. elevations ▪ More dependent on elevation than prox. To equator  Economic Activities  Wealth lies in Oil, 4 large reserves lie in Llanos, Orinoco Delta, lowlands, and off-shore

5  Physical Characteristics  Similar to Ven. in having 3 distinct regions ▪ Lowlands, mountains, and llanos  Dependent on single cash-crop of Coffee  “All eggs in one basket” problem  Similar problems to Brazil, land in hands of few  Campesino’s barely able to grow enough food for family b/c of growing coffee

6  Finish up any of HW not filled out  If time work on parts of Project  Finish Sect. 1 Quiz for Tuesday

7  Mulatto  People of mixed African and other ancestry  Bauxite  Mineral used in making aluminum; Guyana is one of worlds largest exporters  Llanos  Spanish for “plains,” Grassy plain in Venezuela  Cordilleras  Related set of mountain ranges: The Andes here  Campesinos  Tenant farmers in Columbia.

8  Quickly Work on any of Sect. 1 Quiz  Go over Quiz 1 as class

9 Learning Objectives  How have physical characteristics of Andean Countries affected people who live there?  How are economies of Ecuador/Peru Similar?  How do climatic conditions affect Bolivia/Chile Vocabulary  Altiplano  Paramo  Timber line  selva

10  Mtn Chain has divided nations into 3 Regions  Coastal Plains: Low plain that stretches along Pac. Coast  Highlands: Peaks reach incredible heights w/ valleys and plateaus ▪ Rich soils and minerals are two main resources  Tropical Forests: Eastern slopes of Andes into lowlands  The Mtns are a great source of wealth, in soil and minerals, but also create a barrier to trade/migration

11  Ethnic Backgrounds  ¼ of Ecuador and 45% of Peru are made up of Indians  Another half of Ecuador is Mestizos, while over ½ of Peru is also Mestizo  Ecuador  Lands in hand of few Europeans, tenant and subsistent farming  Discovery of Oil in Selva  Peru  Lands in hand of few Europeans, tenant and subsistent farming

12  Bolivia  Climate conditions affect what is grown there, and also makes it hard for foreign born citizens to be active  Chile  2/3 of population is Mestizo  Atacama Desert is uninhabited  Most of population lives in fertile river basins bt. Andes and Coastal Ranges  Productive summer climates come during that of winters in N. Hemisphere’s US/Europe ▪ Making them good markets for Fruits/Vegetables

13  Get w/ 6 o’clock partners  Work on Hands-on Geography  Finish up Sect. 2 Quiz

14  Altplano  “high plain” located in Peru and Bolivia  Paramos  Plateau in the Andes of Ecuador  Timber line  Boundary above which continuous forest vegetation cannot grow  Selva  Forested region in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia

15  Study Map outline  Complete Quiz  Go over Quiz 2

16 Learning Objectives  Physical Characteristics of S. Grassland countries?  How have political conditions changed in Paraguay/Uruguay?  How has urbanization affected Argentina? Vocabulary  Estuary  Piedmont  Pampas  Gaucho

17  Made up of Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina  Physical Characteristics  Andean Region: Located in W. Argentina ▪ Include 4 highest mtns. In W. Hemisphere  Tropical Lowlands: Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil ▪ Dense Shrub regions, Mild temperatures, wet/dry climate  Grasslands (pampas): Argentina and Uruguay ▪ Temperate grasslands w/ warm summers and cold winters  Patagonia: South of Pampas ▪ Windswept plateau, Dry and Cold climate

18  Paraguay  Most people live in Eastern part of country  Economy: Agriculture: cotton, grains, livestock  Political Conditions ▪ Military Dictatorship for 35 years ▪ Dem. Elections since 93’ ▪ Successfully passed power w/ no violence in 2000  Uruguay  Most people of European descent; Italian/Spanish  Economy: Livestock, meat processing, wool/leather ▪ 75% land for livestock  Political Conditions ▪ Military rule for much of 70s/80s ▪ Held free elections since 85’ ▪ People now required to vote  Thoughts?

19  Ethnic Background  Mostly European descent w/ Italians/Spanish  Urbanization  Capitol City= Buenos Aires  88% live in cities  Vibrant manufacturing business have created a “hub” of activity in cities. ▪ Led to heavy air pollution in cities

20  Pick up Chapter Review  Finish up any of Hand-on worksheet not finished!  Complete Sect. 3 Quiz  Test Monday  Unit Review Tuesday  Unit Test Wednesday

21  Estuary  Broad river mouth formed where a flooded river valley meets the sea  Piedmont  Gently rolling foothills of the Andes  Pampas  Temperate grasslands located in Argentina/Uruguay  Gauchos  Cowboys that herd cattle


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