8 Describing Population Changes Doubling Times—time it takes for a population to double in size“Rule of 70”—way to calculate doubling time70/percent growth rate=doubling time in years
9 Less developed countries: Less developed countries include all countries in Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), and Latin America and the Caribbean, and the regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.More developed countries: More developed countries include all countries in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.
10 Fertility—number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population (two types of fertility rates)
12 Government Based Incentives: Tax deductions for more children Replacement-level Fertility—number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (slightly higher than 2; higher in developing countries)Government Based Incentives:Paid maternity leaveJob SecurityTax deductions for more children
13 Total Fertility Rate (TFR)—average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive yearsMs. Miller’snumberIs currently 1!!
14 Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Total Fertility Rates Children in Labor Force
15 She will be expected to provide him with lots of children, to help with farm work. At that time he had 15 children but there were more on the way. In Kenya women are far outnumbered by men in both university enrollments and the paid labor force -- where most of them earn far less than men (though, again in theory, persons with similar qualifications are supposed to be paid the same today.)
16 Octomom hits the beach with 14 kids including 8 babies Octomom hits the beach with 14 kids including 8 babies. Nadya Suleman, with all of her children including 17 month old octuplets, hit the beach on June 27, 2010.There are NO excuses for this type of behavior and who actually cares for these children?
26 Births per thousand population U.S. Birth Rates:32302826Births per thousand population24222018End of World War II16Demographictransition14DepressionBaby boomBaby bustEcho baby boom19101920193019401950196019701980199020002010YearFig. 10-8, p. 180
27 Factors Affecting Death Rates Life expectancy—average number of years that a newborn can expect to live
28 Infant mortality rate (IMR)—number of babies out of every 1000 who die before their first birthday
29 Population Age Structure Rapid GrowthGuatemalaNigeriaSaudi ArabiaSlow GrowthUnited StatesAustraliaCanadaMaleFemaleZero GrowthSpainAustriaGreeceNegative GrowthGermanyBulgariaSwedenFig p. 184
30 Solutions: Influencing Population Size Migration
31 Environmental refugees Climate change will lead to increased water shortages and continued desertification
32 A major factor in reducing birth rates in stage 3 countries such as Malaysia is the availability of family planning facilities, like this one in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.Reducing births
36 Demographic Transition Demographic transition—hypothesis of population change of how a country becomes industrialized (4 stages)Preindustrial—little population growth; high birth rate and high death rate
37 2) Transitional—industrialization begins, food production increases, death rates drop and birth rates still high, rapid population growth
38 3) Industrial—birth rate drops and approached death rate, slower population growth, modernization becomes more widespread
39 4) Postindustrial—birth and death rates equal (ZPG) and then goes below ZPG causing decrease in population
40 The Demographic Transition Fig p. 189LowHighRelative population size(number per 1,000 per year)Birth rate and death rate8070605040302010Stage 1PreindustrialStage 2TransindustrialStage 3IndustrialStage 4Postindustrialgrowth rateIncreasing GrowthVery highDecreasingZeroNegativeBirth rateTotal populationDeath rateTime
41 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in India Generally disappointing results:Poor planningBureaucratic inefficiency
42 The Solar Power Initiative Low status of womenThe Solar Power InitiativeThey are training women to build and maintain solar energy units, and in that way empower women and build power in other ways. from India, Afghanistan, Ghana and Syria are all being trained at the college. They then go on to train other women who pass on their knowledge to build and run solar energy units. It is the goal to be a force for change. Read more:
43 Extreme povertyLack of administrative and financial support
44 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in China Economic incentivesFree medical carePreferential treatment for jobs