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Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population

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Presentation on theme: "Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population"— Presentation transcript:

1 Applying Population Ecology: The Human Population
Chapter 10 APES Ms. Miller

2 Key Concepts Factors affecting human population size
Human population problems Managing population growth

3 Factors Affecting Human Population Size
Population change equation Population Change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)

4 Crude birth rate (BR)—number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given year


6 Crude death rate (DR)—number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year

7 Crude Birth vs Crude Death Rate

8 Describing Population Changes
Doubling Times—time it takes for a population to double in size “Rule of 70”—way to calculate doubling time 70/percent growth rate=doubling time in years

9 Less developed countries: Less developed countries include all countries in Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), and Latin America and the Caribbean, and the regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. More developed countries: More developed countries include all countries in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.

10 Fertility—number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population (two types of fertility rates)


12 Government Based Incentives: Tax deductions for more children
Replacement-level Fertility—number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (slightly higher than 2; higher in developing countries) Government Based Incentives: Paid maternity leave Job Security Tax deductions for more children

13 Total Fertility Rate (TFR)—average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive years Ms. Miller’s number Is currently 1!!

14 Factors Affecting Birth Rates and Total Fertility Rates
Children in Labor Force

15 She will be expected to provide him with lots of children, to help with farm work. At that time he had 15 children but there were more on the way. In Kenya women are far outnumbered by men in both university enrollments and the paid labor force -- where most of them earn far less than men (though, again in theory, persons with similar qualifications are supposed to be paid the same today.)

16 Octomom hits the beach with 14 kids including 8 babies
Octomom hits the beach with 14 kids including 8 babies.  Nadya Suleman, with all of her children including 17 month old octuplets, hit the beach on June 27, 2010. There are NO excuses for this type of behavior and who actually cares for these children?

17 Cost of raising and educating children

18 Availability of pension systems

19 Urbanization

20 Education and employment for women

21 Infant mortality rate Deaths/1000 live births

22 Take the time to appreciate how good you really have it
Take the time to appreciate how good you really have it!!! Say “thank you” more!!!

23 Average marrying age

24 Abortion

25 Availability of birth control

26 Births per thousand population
U.S. Birth Rates: 32 30 28 26 Births per thousand population 24 22 20 18 End of World War II 16 Demographic transition 14 Depression Baby boom Baby bust Echo baby boom 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Fig. 10-8, p. 180

27 Factors Affecting Death Rates
Life expectancy—average number of years that a newborn can expect to live

28 Infant mortality rate (IMR)—number of babies out of every 1000 who die before their first birthday

29 Population Age Structure
Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Slow Growth United States Australia Canada Male Female Zero Growth Spain Austria Greece Negative Growth Germany Bulgaria Sweden Fig p. 184

30 Solutions: Influencing Population Size

31 Environmental refugees
Climate change will lead to increased water shortages and continued desertification

32                    A major factor in reducing birth rates in stage 3 countries such as Malaysia is the availability of family planning facilities, like this one in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Reducing births

33 Family planning

34 Empowerment of women

35 Economic rewards and penalties

36 Demographic Transition
Demographic transition—hypothesis of population change of how a country becomes industrialized (4 stages) Preindustrial—little population growth; high birth rate and high death rate

37 2) Transitional—industrialization begins, food production increases, death rates drop and birth rates still high, rapid population growth

38 3) Industrial—birth rate drops and approached death rate, slower population growth, modernization becomes more widespread

39 4) Postindustrial—birth and death rates equal (ZPG) and then goes below ZPG causing decrease in population

40 The Demographic Transition
Fig p. 189 Low High Relative population size (number per 1,000 per year) Birth rate and death rate 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Stage 1 Preindustrial Stage 2 Transindustrial Stage 3 Industrial Stage 4 Postindustrial growth rate Increasing Growth Very high Decreasing Zero Negative Birth rate Total population Death rate Time

41 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in India
Generally disappointing results: Poor planning Bureaucratic inefficiency

42 The Solar Power Initiative
Low status of women The Solar Power Initiative They are training women to build and maintain solar energy units, and in that way empower women and build power in other ways. from India, Afghanistan, Ghana and Syria are all being trained at the college. They then go on to train other women who pass on their knowledge to build and run solar energy units. It is the goal to be a force for change. Read more:

43 Extreme poverty Lack of administrative and financial support

44 Case Study: Slowing Population Growth in China
Economic incentives Free medical care Preferential treatment for jobs

45 Locally administered Strict control for program

46 Cutting Global Population Growth
Elevate the status of women Improve health care Family planning Increase education Involve men in parenting Reduce poverty Sustainability

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