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**Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action**

Chapter 12 Forces and Motion Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action

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12.1 Forces Objectives: 1. Describe examples of force and identify appropriate SI units used to measure force 2. Explain how the motion of an object is affected when balanced and unbalanced forces act on it 3. Compare and contrast four kinds of friction 4. Describe how Earth’s gravity and air resistance affect falling objects 5. Describe the path of a projectile and identify the forces that produce projectile motion

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**Force and SI Units In its most basic form, a force is a push or a pull**

A force can cause a resting object to move or it can accelerate a moving object by changing the object’s speed or direction The SI unit of force is the Newton (N) 1 N causes a 1 kg mass to accelerate at a rate of 1 m per second each second 1 N = 1 kg-m/s2 Use an arrow to represent the direction & strength of a force

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**Balanced & Unbalanced Forces**

You can combine force arrows to show the result of how forces combine Forces in the same direction add together while opposing forces are subtracted Definition: net force is the overall force acting on an object after all forces are combined When the forces on an object are balanced the net force is zero & there is no change in the object’s motion When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the object accelerates

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Friction Definition: friction is a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other Four types of friction are static friction, sliding friction, rolling friction and fluid friction Definition: static friction is the friction force that acts on objects that are not moving Static friction acts in the direction opposite that of the applied force Definition: sliding friction opposes the direction of motion of an object as it slides over a surface

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Sliding friction is less than static friction & less force is needed to keep an object moving or start it moving Definition: rolling friction is the force that acts on rolling objects When a round object rolls across a flat floor, both the object and the floor are bent slightly out shape Definition: fluid friction opposes the motion of an object through fluid Ex: spoon through batter Definition: a fluid is a mixture of water and gases Definition: air resistance is fluid friction acting on a moving object through the air At high speed air resistance becomes important This is why bicyclists, skaters and other athletes wear slick racing suits

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**Gravity and Falling Objects**

Definition: gravity is a force that acts between any two masses Earth’s gravity acts downward toward the center of the earth Gravity causes objects to accelerate downward Air resistance acts in the direction opposite of gravity, opposing the motion and reducing acceleration Definition: terminal velocity is the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance equals the force of gravity Terminal velocity equals 9.8 m/s2

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Projectile Motion Definition: projectile motion is the motion of a falling object after it is given an initial forward velocity The combination of an initial forward velocity and the downward vertical force of gravity causes the object to follow a curved path

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**12.2 Newton’s First & Second Laws of Motion**

Objectives: 1. Describe Newton’s first law of motion & its relation to inertia 2. Describe Newton’s second law of motion and use it to calculate acceleration, force and mass values 3. Relate the mass of an object to its weight

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Newton’s first law In the mid 1600s Isaac Newton expanded on the work of Galileo (Galileo’s work from late 1500s to early 1600s) Newton’s first: the state of motion of an object does not change if the net force acting on it is zero Put another way: an object at rest tends to stay at rest & an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same direction and same speed Definition: inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion Newton’s first law is also called the Law of Inertia Q: How does a zero net force affect an object’s motion?

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Newton’s Second Law Newton’s second: the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on it divided by the object’s mass Acceleration = net force or a = F Mass m Cross multiplying the equation tells us that F=ma It is useful to know that N & m are equivalent kg s2 The acceleration of an object is always the same direction as the net force but.. The second law applies when net force acts in a direction opposite to the object’s motion such as seat belts opposing a passenger’s forward motion in a collision (causing deceleration)

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**Let’s try a couple problems…**

Q: A 20 N net force acts on an object with a mass of 2.0 kg. What is the object’s acceleration? A: F=ma F=20 N m= 2.0 kg so 20=(2.0)(a) Divide both sides by /2.0 = 2.0/2.0 (a) A= 10 m/ s2 Q: What is the acceleration of a 1000 kg car subject to a 550 N net force? A: F=ma or a=F/m N/ 1000 kg = 0.5 m/ s2

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Mass and Weight Definition: weight is the force of gravity acting on an object Weight formula: weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity or W=mg F or W must be written in Newtons, acceleration in meters per second squared and the mass in kilograms Acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/ s2 Q: If an astronaut has a mass of 112 kg, what is his weight on Earth: W= mg so 112 kg x 9.8 m/ s2 = 1100 N Mass is a measure of inertia of an object Weight is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object

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**12.3 Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum**

Objectives: 1. Explain how action and reaction forces are related according to Newton’s third law of motion 2. Calculate the momentum of an object and describe what happens when momentum is conserved during a collision

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**Action and Reaction Forces**

Newton’s third law: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object Forces come in pairs: push and pull, action & reaction Ex: swimmer pushes against the water (creating an action force) & the water produces a reaction force that pulls the swimmer along (action on the water, reaction on the swimmer) When action & reaction forces do not act on the same object as in the water & swimmer, the net force is not zero When the action & reaction forces act on the same object the net force is zero

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Momentum Definition: momentum is the product of an object’s mass and its velocity If the object has a lot of momentum, it is hard to stop An object has a lot of momentum if the product of its mass and velocity is large Momentum = mass x velocity Law of Conservation of Momentum: if no net force acts on a system, the total momentum of the system does not change In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one object equals the gain in momentum of another object & momentum is conserved

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Let’s try a problem Q: Which has more momentum, a kg golf ball travelling at 60 m/s, or a 7.0 kg bowling ball going 6.0 m/s? **notice the units for momentum are kg-m/s** A. Golf ball = kg x 60 m/s = 2.8 kg-m/s Bowling ball= 7.0 kg x 6 m/s = 42 kg-m/s So the bowling ball has more momentum Q: If an eagle and a bumblebee are traveling at 8 km/h, which has more momentum & why?

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