 # Forces Unit 2 Chapter 12.1. What is a Force? A force can cause a resting object to move, or it can accelerate a moving object by changing the object’s.

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Forces Unit 2 Chapter 12.1

What is a Force? A force can cause a resting object to move, or it can accelerate a moving object by changing the object’s speed or direction. – Spring scale is used to measure force – Force is measured in Newton (N) 1N = 1Kg ∙ 1m/s 2

Representing force – Can use an arrow to represent the direction and strength of a force. – The direction of the arrow represents the direction of the force. – The length of the arrow represents the strength or magnitude of the force.

Representing Force Calculating Net Force from arrows – If arrows are in same direction they add together – If arrows are in opposite directions they subtract from each other A.4 N force down B.0 N force C.4 N force left D.6 N force up

Friction Friction is a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other. Friction acts at the surface where object are in contact Four main types of friction: static friction, sliding friction, rolling friction and fluid friction.

Static Friction Static friction is the friction force that acts on objects that are not moving. Static friction always acts in the direction opposite to that of the applied force Prevents objects from sliding.

Sliding Friction Occurs when there is enough force to overcome the static friction Sliding Friction is a force that opposes the direction of motion of an object as it slides over a surface. There will be a net force in the direction of motion

Rolling Friction Rolling friction is the force that acts on rolling objects. Rolling friction is about 100 to 1000 times less than the force of static or sliding friction

Fluid Friction Fluid friction opposes the motion of an object through a fluid. Fluid examples: air, water, quick sand, and cake batter Air Resistance is the fluid friction action on an object moving through the air.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion The state of motion of an object does not change as long as the net force acting on the object is zero. An object at rest remains at rest An object in motion remains in motion Newton’s first law is sometimes called the law of inertia Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion Newton also learned that the acceleration of an object depends on its mass Mass is the measure of the inertia of an object and depends on the amount of matter the object contains. Newton’s second law: the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on it divided by the object’s mass Example: doubling the mass of an objects cuts its acceleration in half

Newton’s Second Law of Motion The acceleration of an object is always in the same direction as the net force. The unit of acceleration is m/s 2 The units of acceleration N/kg and m/s 2 are equivalent

Newton’s Third Law of Motion According to Newton’s third law of motion, whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object. Called Action and Reaction Forces – The force your bumper car exerts on the other car is the action force – The force the other car exerts on your cars is the reaction force – The two forces are equal in size and opposite in direction.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion Swimmer used arms to push against the water and create an action force The water exerts an opposite reaction force on the swimmer The reaction force acts on the swimmer and pushes him forward through the water Not all action and reaction forces produce motion.

Newton’s Three Laws Summary First Law – Motion won’t occur (or change) unless a force acts on object Second Law – Acceleration = net force/mass Third Law – Action/reaction – equal and opposite = 0 net force – If not equal and opposite a change in motion occurs

Which Law is it? 1.The law that states that the unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object’s mass times its acceleration 2.The law that states that for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force 3.The law that states that every object maintains constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force 4.Describes action and reaction forces 5.States that a comet won’t stop moving until it hits something 6.States that the more massive the object the more force needed to accelerate it.

9/11/12 Ticket out the door Summarize Newton’s Three Laws – You may use bullet or paragraph form – Try and put them in your OWN words

9/4 independent salt, dependent freezing point

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