2The Impact of Staff Development on Practice Training ComponentAwareness of ConceptSkill AttainmentClassroomApplicationPresentation of Theory85%15%5-10%Modeling18%Practice & Low Risk Feedback80%10-15%Study TeamsPeer Visitation90%80-90%Adapted from research of Bruce Joyce & printed in the NSDC Standards for Staff Development.
3Self-Efficacy What is it? “Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations.”Bandura, 1986
4And what researchers have learned is powerful! Efficacy ResearchAttempts to discover how beliefs about effectiveness affect actual performance…And what researchers have learned is powerful!
5Why is efficacy important? Efficacy beliefs determine…whether thinking iserratic or strategicoptimistic or pessimisticwhat courses of action people choosegoals people set and commitment to themhow much effort they put forththeir expectations of successperseverance in the face of obstacles and failuretheir resilience to adversityhow much stress and depression they experienceAND the accomplishments they realize
6In other words, it is the psychological research that proves - Perception IS reality
8“Whether you believe you can do a thing or nor, you are right “Whether you believe you can do a thing or nor, you are right.” - Henry Ford
9Collective Teacher Efficacy What is it?“Collective efficacy in a school is the perceptions of teachers that the faculty as a whole can execute courses of action required to positively affect student achievement … ”“in other words, the school sees itself as an effective agent of change.”
10What does research tell us about its impact on student achievement? student achievement is significantly and positively related to collective efficacycollective efficacy has a greater effect on student achievement than does student socioeconomic statusone unit increase in a school’s collective teacher efficacy scale score is associated with8.62 point average gain in student mathematics achievement8.49 point average gain in reading achievement
11“...collective efficacy is the key organizational variable in facilitating student achievement…it will have the strongest independent influence on achievement.”Smith, Hoy, & Sweetland, 2001
12What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement? When collective efficacy is high, teachers in a school -believe they can reach their students and that they can overcome negative external forcesare more persistent in their effortsplan moreaccept personal responsibility for student achievementare not discouraged by temporary setbacks
13What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement? efficacious schools are more likely toaccept challenging goalsdemonstrate stronger effortpersist in efforts to overcome difficulties and succeedWeak collective efficacy is likely to lead toreduced effortpropensity to give up when things get tough
14“…there is strong reason to lead schools in a direction that will systematically develop teacher efficacy; such efforts may indeed be rewarded with continuous growth in not only collective teacher efficacy but also student achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000
15What does research tell us about what improves efficacy? “…once established, the collective efficacy of a school is a relatively stable property that requires substantial effort to change.”Four kinds of experiences impact efficacy beliefsMastery experienceVicarious experienceSocial PersuasionEmotional arousal/affective state
16What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy? Mastery experiencecreate situations in which teachers can succeed with studentsaction research projectsVicarious experiencerole models to demonstrate how skills are applied to achieve successful outcomesdiscussions with colleagues about success - “what works”
17What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy? Teachers can be changed byTalksWorkshopsprofessional developmentfeedback about progress and achievement.Verbal persuasion alone is not potent - requirespositive direct experiencemodels of successthen can and does influence efficacy beliefs.
18What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy? Organizational Affective StateEfficacious schools toleratepressureconflictsfunctioning effectivelyBehavior of school leaders key influence - either positive or negativecalm leadership in conflictlimits misinterpretation of eventsover- or under-reaction.
19These “conclusions are powerful ones that offer great hope to schools struggling to increase student achievement and overcome the association between socioeconomic status and achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000